A&P Chapter 1 - The Human Body: An Orientation

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For Honors Anatomy & Physiology students at Christian Life School

Define Anatomy

Study of the structures of the body and how they relate to each other.

Define Physiology

Study of how the structures of the body function.

Why study A & P together?

Physiology is only explainable when knowledge of Anatomy is present.

Define Gross Anatomy.

The study of those parts that can be seen with the naked eye.

Define Microscopic Anatomy.

The study of very small structures of the body that cannot be seen with the naked eye.

Define Developmental Anatomy.

The study of lifetime body changes in an individual.

Define Renal Physiology.

The study of how the kidneys function.

Define Neurophysiology.

The study of how the nervous system functions.

Define Cardiovascular Physiology.

The study of the function of the heart and blood vessels.

What are the 6 structural levels of organization?

Chemical
Cellular
Tissue
Organ
Organ system
Organismal

What are the 8 functional characteristics of living things needed to maintain life? Describe each of them.

*Maintaining boundaries-our bodies have a protective skin covering it and all cells have a membrane surrounding them
*Movement-blood moving through vessels and muscles contracting to relocate us from place to place
*Responsiveness-reacting to a stimulus
*Digestion-breaking down food stuffs into usable nutrients
*Metabolism-building up and breaking down substances in the body
*Excretion-getting rid of wastes in the body
*Reproduction-from cells creating more cells to people creating more people
*Growth-cells increasing in size and organisms increasing in size

5 survival needs of the human body

Nutrients
Oxygen
Water
Normal body temperature
Correct atmospheric pressure

Name the eleven body systems.

Urinary
Cardiovascular
Respiratory
Integumentary
Muscular
Endocrine
Nervous
Immune/Lymphatic
Reproductive
Digestive
Skeletal

What are the main organs and functions of the Urinary System?

Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
Eliminates wastes from the body
Regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood

What are the main organs and functions of the Cardiovascular System?

Composed of the heart and blood vessels
The heart pumps blood
The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body

What are the main organs and functions of the Respiratory System?

Composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide

What are the main organs and functions of the Integumentary System?

Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails
Forms the external body covering
Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D.

What are the main organs and functions of the Muscular System?

Composed of muscles and tendons
Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression
Maintains posture
Produces heat

What are the main organs and functions of the Endocrine System?

Contains glands that secrete hormones
Hormones regulate and control a lot of the processes that occur in the body

What are the main organs and functions of the Nervous System?

Composed of the brain, spinal column, and nerves
Is the fast-acting control system of the body
Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands

What are the main organs and functions of the Immune/Lymphatic System?

Composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels
Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood
Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream
Houses white blood cells involved with immunity

What are the main organs and functions of the Reproductive System?

Male:
Composed of prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, and ductus deferens
Main function is the production of offspring
Female:
Composed of mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina
Main function is the production of offspring

What are the main organs and functions of the Digestive System?

Composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, and liver
Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood
Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces

What are the main organs and functions of the Skeletal System?

Composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments
Protects and supports body organs
Provides the framework for muscles
Site of blood cell formation
Stores minerals

Describe correct Anatomical Position

Body is erect
Feet slightly apart
Arms at sides, with palms facing forward
Thumbs away from the body

Define Superior.

Toward the head or upper part.

Define Inferior.

Toward the feet or lower part.

Define Ventral/Anterior.

Toward the front; belly side

Define Dorsal/Posterior.

Toward the back; behind

Define Medial.

Closer to the midline; toward the midline

Define Lateral.

Farther from the midline; away from the midline

Define Proximal.

Closer to the trunk of the body.

Define Distal.

Away from the trunk of the body.

Define Superficial.

Toward or at the body surface.

Define Deep.

Away from the body surface.

Regional Terms

See Anatomy Man handout

Three planes of the body

Sagittal
Frontal (Coronal)
Transverse (Horizontal)

Define Sagittal Plane.

Divides the body into left and right halves.

Define Frontal/Coronal Plane.

Divides the body into anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal).

Define Transverse/Horizontal Plane

Divides the body into superior and inferior.

Two major body cavities

Ventral
Dorsal

What two cavities are found in the Ventral Body Cavity?

Thoracic
Abdominopelvic

Define Thoracic cavity.

Cavity that encloses the heart and lungs

Define Abdominopelvic cavity.

Cavity that encloses many organs like the stomach and intestines.

What two cavities make up the Dorsal Body Cavity?

Cranial
Vertebral

Define Cranial cavity.

Cavity that encloses the brain.

Define Vertebral cavity.

Cavity that encloses the spinal cord.

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