funeral rite that is adjusted to the needs and wants of those directly involved; altered to suit
the trends of the times.
American Board of Funeral Service Education
The agency charged with developing curriculum and
accreditation standards for funeral service education programs in the United States.
early Roman view of the afterlife which emphasizes the soul as the vital principle. The soul at death hovered around the place of burial and required constant attention of the descendents to be happy.
Neglect would bring evil upon them.
human shaped; some early coffins were described as anthropoidal shaped.
Egyptian god of embalming said to be of human form with the head of a jackal
culture associated with the practice of immersing the body of the dead in earthen jars filled with honey or wax.
Barber - surgeon
approximately 1540 — 1745 were the sole agency permitted to embalm and perform
anatomical dissections in the city of London
forerunner of today's hearse; a hand stretcher on which the uncoffined body was carried to the grave.
belief or practice of draining a quantity of blood to cure illness or disease
generic term used in America to designate all burial receptacles as new variations of the coffin were being offered.
created in 1800's London by the 'poor' people as a means to afford funerals; costs were shared by others via weekly collections; were the forerunners of industrial insurance.
Burial in Woolen Act of 1666
required that woolen cloth be substituted for linen in the shroud and lining of
the coffin; was an attempt to shift the use of imported linen to the expanding paper industry of England
and provide customers for the wool Industry. Heavy fines were assessed for violation; not repealed until
outer enclosure for caskets placed in the grave; originally intended to prevent grave robbery
used by the Egyptians; four jars, usually made of alabaster, limestone, clay or basalt, whose tops were surmounted by the images of the four children of Horus, each held a specific portion of the viscera of the deceased.
from the French term 'casse' meaning jewel box' or container for something valuable; came into dominant use in patent literature for burial receptacles in 1890's in America; a rigid container which is designed for the encasement of human remains and which is usually constructed of wood, metal,
fiberglass, plastic, or like material, and ornamented and lined with fabric. (FTC definition)
Casket Manufacturers Association
organization of the casket manufacturers intended to facilitate sharing of
information (now known as the Casket and Funeral Supply Association).
originated in ancient Rome as excavated cemeteries cut out of soft rock for the tombs of wealthy Christians; later became a place for religious rites to avoid persecution.
raised platform (with or without a canopy) used for a body to lie in state.
1840's reported on unsanitary conditions in London created by intramural burials, the
high cost of funerals and the 1st use of the death certificate.
English investigator of mass corruption in regard to English burial practices who
recommended that cemeteries be municipalized and that religious rites be simplified and standardized in
Circle of Necessity
in Egyptian culture, the journey to the Sun and back which required 3,000 years to
Joseph Henry Clarke
founded Clarke School of Embalming at Cincinnati (now Cincinnati College) in 1882.
Author and holder of several patents.
from the Greek word 'kofinos'; utilitarian container designed to hold human remains, often anthropoid
Conference of Funeral Service Examining Boards
organization of licensing agencies in North America; responsible for the national licensing exam known as the National Board Exam; established in St. Louis in
portable table on which the body was placed while the corpse cooler was in use; later became the embalming table when embalming was done in the home of the deceased.
method of disposing of the dead body via fire; first attributed to the ancient Greeks.
Cremation Association of North America
Founded in 1913, CANA is an international organization of cemeterians, cremationists, funeral directors, industry suppliers and consultants. CANA was originally formed to promote cremation as a modem, safe and hygienic way of dealing with a dead human body.
English custom of Middle Ages which lasted until 19th C.; person who walked the street calling out the name of the deceased and asking people to pray for the soul of the departed
master of ceremonies and director of the ancient Roman funeral procession
disposition of human remains without any rites or ceremonies
traveling salesmen who went from town to town selling their products. Early embalmers often obtained their products and training in this manner
a life — sized, waxen recreation (dummy) of the deceased; often used at state funerals because the body of the deceased should be present for the funeral, but could not be preserved for that length of time
in Greek mythology, the Greek version of heaven
burial outside the walls of the city; concept introduced during the ancient Roman times
Fisk metallic coffin
patented in 1848 as form-fitting, airtight metallic coffin designed to improve ability to
preserve the body; also had a glass plate to allow for viewing of the face
Latin for torchlight procession; word funeral is derived from this
in Middle Ages the wake also served as a feast to welcome the principal heir to his new estate; for the ancient Greeks, funeral feasts ended the fast of the bereaved.
Funeral trolley car
a specially designed train car run on a city's trolley line to transport casket & mourners to
cemeteries on the outskirts of the city.
provided services of organizing and facilitating funeral details as an occupation; aka
undertaker, different from furnishing undertaker.
provided supplies and merchandise (i.e. door badges, carriages, etc.) to funeral
undertakers who were dealing directly with the public. Furnishing undertakers filled the role of middle man.
Jean N. Gannal
French chemist who developed early embalming methods including injection through the carotid arteries. Author of History of Embalming
J. Anthony Gaussardia
patented a process of embalming involving the injection of an arsenic — alcohol mixture.
apparatus used to inject arterial fluid during the vascular (arterial) phase of the embalming
process; relies on gravity to create the pressure required to deliver the fluid (0.43 pounds of pressure per
foot of elevation)
method to apply a continuous flow of embalming solution via manual manipulation of a handheld mechanism
translated Gannal's History of Embalming; responsible for bringing the European
embalming techniques to the United States.
Dr. William Harvey
Discovered the circulation of blood
today, a vehicle specially designed to transport casketed remains; derived from French word, herse;
originally a stationary framework of wood to hold candles and decorations placed on the coffin; forerunner was a bier; hearse and bier were used interchangeably until mid 19th C.; aka funeral coach.
Dr. Thomas Holmes
"Father of Modem Embalming in the United States"
Scottish anatomist credited with the discovery of "Hunters Canal."
credited with the discovery of the chemical formaldehyde
disposition via earth burial without any form of funeral rite at the time of disposition.
International Conference of Funeral Service Examining Boards
The agency responsible for production,
administration, and integrity of the National Board Examination. Also referred to as "The Conference."
Inviter to funerals
a specialty connected with funerals in colonial America; called personally upon those
expected to attend funerals; often a municipal appointment.
Jewish Funeral Directors of America (JFDA)
chartered in 1928 to secure harmony in the profession among Jewish funeral directors and elevate the practice of the profession.
Layers out of the dead
became an occupational specialty in many larger US cities by the end of the 18th C.;
predecessor to the undertaker.
Leagues of Prayer
formed in Middle Ages by lay persons to bury the dead and to pray for the souls of the
Anton von Leeuwenhoek
inventor of the microscope — "Father of Microbiology."
the ancient Roman goddess of corpses and funerals.
head undertaker in ancient Rome; the secular role model for today's funeral director; conducted his business at the temple of Libitina where death were also registered
due to the fear of pre-mature burial, many early American coffins were designed and patented
with a method to alert the living if someone was buried alive.
"Father of Histology," the study of tissues
ancient Viking custom; after deceased was placed in his boat with items necessary for the spirit to maintain the position held on earth, all was cremated and the pyre then covered with earth.
religious/philosophical belief of the ancient Greeks and Oriental East emphasizing spiritual
aspects of the afterlife and the hope of joining the cult god in a wonderful existence in eternity
National Association of Colleges of Mortuary Science
established in 1942 as an organization for privately sponsored schools with the goal of advancement of mortuary education
National Foundation of Funeral Service
established in 1945 as a non-profit educational trust to advance the education of the profession; currently merged with the NFDA as Funeral Service Foundation.
National Funeral Directors Association
a professional association of funeral directors and embalmers organized in 1882. It is the oldest and largest national funeral service organization in the world. NFDA currently provides is advocacy, education, information, products, programs and services to
help members enhance the quality of services to families. (this statement taken from the NFDA constitution)
National Funeral Directors and Morticians Association
incorporated in 1938 as National Negro Funeral
Directors and Morticians Association; present name adopted 1957; established to represent specific
interests of African—American funeral directors.
National Selected Morticians (NSM)
a limited membership funeral service organization formed in 1917 on
the basis of one member firm per city; now known as Select Independent Funeral Homes (SIFH).
a salt obtained from the dry lakes of the desert used by the Egyptians in the mummification process. It was once thought that the body was covered in natron for 70 days. Modem translations of the Book of the
Dead state that the body was covered for only 20 days.
in Egyptian history, the walled suburb of a major city where embalming was performed. Also known as 'The City of the Dead."
historic term for funeral ceremonies.
an innovation introduced to square sided caskets in order to reduce the excess space and weight, particularly of metal caskets; characterized by an "S" shaped curvature
Order of the Golden Rule (OGR)
association established in 1928; committed to quality services and high standards; membership limited to one independently OWNED FUNERAL HOME PER community; now known as IOGR (International Order of Golden Rule).
Egyptian god of the underworld and judge of the dead.
one who has little or no religion and who delights in sensual pleasures and material goods; heathen; an irreligious or hedonistic person; in ancient Rome, a follower of a polytheistic religion.
name of the ancient Roman embalmers. They were either slaves or employees of Libitinarius.
aka crier, a special funeral functionary in ancient Rome who summoned participants to a public funeral
due to fear that the dead might be jealous, the ancient Romans and Greeks hired persons (often women) to shriek, tear their hair and rend garments, etc. in order to insure adequate display of emotion
Catholic belief that those whose souls are not perfectly cleansed undergo a process of
cleansing before they can enter heaven.
Dr. Auguste Renouard
author of The Undertaker's Manual, the first book published specifically as an embalming textbook in the United States.
term applied to systematic treatment of cases requiring repair of injuries due to disease or
trauma. Joel Crandall, a New York City embalmer, is credited with developing such a treatment plan in 1912.
considered the "father of embalming," the first to refine the technique of arterial injection
of a preservative into the vascular system.
early Egyptians cut massive coffins from a single mass of stone to protect from grave robbers.Same term is applied today to massive copper & bronze caskets. Derivation of term is from Greek, sarco
for flesh and phagus for eaters because when opened, bodies inside were found to be in a state of decay.
church caretaker who had responsibility for church property, ringing of bells and digging of graves in
the churchyard cemetery. During the Middle Ages most funeral practices were under the direction of
mortuary fee paid to insure entrance of the decedent's soul into heaven
Style 'E' state coffin
cloth covered coffin designed for ex-President US Grant by Stein Coffin
Co. in 1885 helped elevate acceptance of cloth covered caskets
or embalmer to the trade; term originated when some of the original graduates of early
embalming courses gave up regular employment with a single firm to provide embalming service to firms
which had no trained embalmer.
long hollow tube patented in 1868 by Samuel Rogers of Philadelphia; used by embalmers to inject fluids into cavities and remove excess liquids.
original term applied to those whose occupation included responsibility to organize and facilitate funeral activities; used interchangeably (by some) for the term funeral director.
name given to the vehicle used by undertakers to transport the necessary mortuary
paraphernalia to the homes where funerals were typically held. These vehicles sometimes had an appearance similar to a hearse, but were much less ornate.
Undertakers Mutual Protective Association
first formal organization of undertakers; kept a black book of objectionable and delinquent customers to be shared among members only; originated in Philadelphia, January 1864
University Mortuary Science Education Association
of college & university based funeral service programs established in 1961.
originated as an ancient Hebrew practice, family and friends sit with the deceased as a precaution against premature burial; continued as an act of piety in Middle Ages (aka vigil for the dead).