child cognitive development
psychosocial stages of development
William G. Perry
adolescent/young adult cognitive development
Rhesus monkey studies with with wire vs. terry cloth mother
attachment & bonding
Harry Stack Sullivan
social developmental theory of learning
mental health consultation model
doctor-patient consultation model
Carl G. Jung
Carl R. Rogers
rational emotive behavioral therapy
structural family therapy
conjoint family therapy
strategic family therapy
family systems therapy
John B. Watson
father of behaviorism
hierarchy of needs
father of guidance
trait-factor approach/Minnesota viewpoint
psychoanalytic family therapy
career fields & levels
career - ego defense mechanisms (sublimation)
career - personality approach (RIASEC)
career - developmental approach (life stage structure, developmental tasks, career patterns, career rainbow)
John O. Crites
Assume that biological forces drive people and that the individaul must struggle to control or channel them. Believe developmental proceeds in stages, and that personality characteristic developed in childhood remain stable over time.
Believed biological drives (sex and aggression) were the primary motivators of human behavior. He believed that personality developed in psychosexual stages.
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
Pleasure focuses around the mouth-birth to 10mths, Pleasure focuses around the anus and the process of elimination-1 to 3 yrs. Pleasure focuses around the genitals-3 to 5 yrs. Dormancy of sexual desires-6 to 12 yrs.
A)Erikson stresses the role of social (verses sexual) factors and his stages of development each involve a different pshychosocial crises
Trust vs Mistrust (sensory state infancy)
Birth-2yrs, If feeding is pleasent____develops. Parents are central to social expansion of the child.
2yrs, Growing mastery of motor skills. If not allowed some independence at this stage, child may begin to feel _____and begin doubting own powers. Parents are central expansion of the child.
Initiative vs. Guilt
(Locomotor or genital age)3-5yrs, Awareness begins to extend to other people and things. Curiosity develops. Sharing with others takes place as well as role exploration, which develops______. Parents are central to social exansion of the child.
Industry vs. Inferiority
(School Age) 6yrs to adolescent, Child begins learning values and skills of society. Recognition for accomplishments promotes_____.Peers are central to social expansion of child.
Identity vs. Role confusion
(Puberty and adolescense) 12-18yrs, process of finding out "Who am I" Failure leads to fasle sense of self. Peers are central to social expansion of the child.
Intimacy vs. Isolation
(Young Adulthood) The stage at which meaningful and intimate relationships are developed. Peers are central to social expansion of the young person.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
(Middle Adulthood) The ability to continue producing, reproducing and developing vs. sitting back, not growing and futhering oneself. Partners and intimate friends are central to social expansion.
Integrity vs. Despair
(Older Adulthood) Those who have been successful in solving life's crises reach ego_____. They look back with a sense of achievement as opposed to feeling of______because of an imcomplete life. Mankind is central to social expansion.
Jane Loevinger-Ego Development
Like Erik Erikson theory, believes that stages are important in revealing one's impulsiveness, self-protectiveness, conformity, conscientiousness, and autonomy.
Jane Loevinger-Stages of Ego Development
Presocial, Symbotic, Impulsive, Self-protective, Conformist.
Believe that human beings are born neither good nor bad. The prominent idea is that people do nothing more than respond to their environment.
Ivan Pavlov(Classical Conditioning) Uncondtional Stimulus
The stimulus that already evokes an uconditional response. Ex. Meat(UCS)-->salivation (UCR).
The stimulus is paired with unconditined stimulus in hopes that it will eventually evoke a similar response when presented alone.
After several pairings the CS (Bell) will hopefully be able to evoke a conditioned response (salivation) when presented without the UCS(meat).
Developed by Joseph Wolpe from the work of Jacobsem (anxiety/fear) (relaxation response). Based upon principles of counterconditioning.
Reactive or Internal Inhibition-Classical
Flooding, anxiety evoking stimulus is presented continuously, leading to fatigue and evetual unlearning.
A stronger pleasant stimulus is paired with a weaker aversive stimulus.
An alcoholic is given antabuse, which is a drug that causes nausea when paired with alcohol. This technique is called_____. The idea here is to pair the alcohol with an aversive, somewhat unpleasent stimulus to reduce the satisfaction of drinking it.
A response is learned because of the consequences that follow. The organism has to do something before it can be conditioned.
B.F. Skinner-Primary Reinforcement
Reinforcement satisfies a primary need. Ex. Food.
Reinforcement includes reinforcers that have somehow been associated with primary reinforcers in the past so that they acquired reinforcing qualities. Ex. Money
Think of it as adding something in order to increase a response. For example, adding a treat will increase the response of sitting; adding praise will increase the chances of your child cleaning his or her room.
B.F. Skinner-Negative Reinforcement
Think of this reinforcement as taking something away in order to increase a response. Imagine a teenager who is nagged by his mother to take out the garbage week after week. After complaining to his friends about the nagging, he finally one day performs the task and to his amazement, the nagging stops. The elimination of this negative stimulus is reinforcing and will likely increase the chances that he will take out the garbage next week.
Both positive and negative, increases the likelihood of a response. Punishment decreases the likelihood of a response. The term reinforce means to strengthen, and is used in psychology to refer to anything stimulus which strengthens or increases the probability of a specific response. For example, if you want your dog to sit on command, you may give him a treat every time he sits for you. The dog will eventually come to understand that sitting when told to will result in a treat. This treat is reinforcing because he likes it and will result in him sitting when instructed to do so.
Reinforcement is presented each time a response is made.
Reinforcement is not provided each time a correct response is made. Can be interval or ratio form.
This refers to applying a reinforcer after a variable number of responses. Imagine walking into a casino and heading for the slot machines. After the third coin you put in, you get two back. Two more and you get three back. Another five coins and you receive two more back. How difficult is it to stop playing?
Type of continues schedule -Fixed-ratio
Reinforcement is presented after a set number of correct responses, such as every third correct response. Spanking a child if you have to ask him three times to clean his room is an example. The problem is that the child (or anyone for that matter) will begin to realize that he can get away with two requests before he has to act. Therefore, the behavior does not tend to change until right before the preset number.
Reinforcing someone after a variable amount of time is the final schedule. If you have a boss who checks your work periodically, you understand the power of this schedule. Because you don't know when the next 'check-up' might come, you have to be working hard at all times in order to be ready.
Type of continues schedule-Fixed-Interval
Reinforcement is presented at the end of every set time period, such as, after every seven minutes, but the response has to be correct. An example might be getting a raise every year and not in between. A major problem with this schedule is that people tend to improve their performance right before the time period expires so as to "look good" when the review comes around.
Reffered to as instrumental type learning. The individual learner must first provide a response and then he/she will associate the response with a positive or negative consequence.
The learner will do again what he/she found to be pleasant and will cease behaviors he/she found to be unpleasent. Thus, reinforcement will strengthen and increase the liklihood that those behaviors will be repeated.
Contingency Contracting-Operant Technique
Identify problem, collect data, set goals, apply techniques and methods, measure observable change, reloop if not successful. (Resason for this is realizing that parts of the plan might not work.)
Client has an extrememly participatory role in his or own therapy. Therapist is a motivator.
Reinforcing new behavior that approximates desired behavior. Therapist looks, waits, and then reinforces.
Any technique that uses an instrument to provide immediate feedback on physiological funtions.
Exposure of the client to one or more individuals in real life or film who are emitting the behavior that is desired of the client.
Token Economics-Operant Technique
Used for groups, can be traded for other reinforcers and are given or taken away for various behavior. This technique should be used to get clients to begin new behaviors, but should not be used indefinitely. Back up reinforcers can be purchased.
Extinction -Operant Technique
When you remove something in order to decrease a behavior, this is called_______. You are taking something away so that a response is decreased.
Refers to adding something aversive in order to decrease a behavior. The most common example of this is disciplining (e.g. spanking) a child for misbehaving. The reason we do this is because the child begins to associate being punished with the negative behavior. The punishment is not liked and therefore to avoid it, he or she will stop behaving in that manner. Does not eliminate behavior but usually only suppresses it. What is affected is the rate of responding. Often does not work
Aversive Training-Operant Technique
Is to punish certain behavior with the intent the behavior will be eliminated. "Such as time out" which is designed such that the behavior in question is followed by a brief amount of time in isolation or inactivity.
John B. Watson-Father of Behaviorism
Believed that the mind of an infant is a tablua rasa or a "Blank Slate" also believed that human development occured due to the learned associations between stimuli and responses.
John B. Watson-Father of Behaviorism
To him Development was a continual process, rather than one which proceeded in stages. Not concerened with motivation as much as about all behavior. Humans inherit only three basic emotions "Fear, Love, and Rage." Rayner expirement-Little Albert
Developed systematic desensitization to treat phobias, and fears, believed psychosis was learned.
Joseph Wolphe-Systematic Desensitization
Is a process of developing a fear hierarchy and a set of relaxation exercises.
Josephe Wolphe-Reciprocal Inhibition
Nonadaptive behavior is learned through conditioning and is accompanied by anxiety.
Josephe Wolphe-Basis of Learning
A response is connected to a conditioned stimulus, thus learning. Reinforcement strengthens the connection and reduces drive. No reinforcement means response extinction.
Neurosis is experimentally induced in animals has been known to be generalized to humans. Neurosis is the persistence of nonadaptive behavior that reduces anxiety. (Learned)
Albert Bandura-Social learning theory
By watching the behavior of others, people learn novel responses without having had the opportunity to make the responses themselves.
His theory today is called Linear-Interactionist Social-Cognitive Theory and is defined as an interaction of individuals with their perceived meaningful environments.
Stimulus control (autonomic acts, under the control of stimuli or antecedents). Outcome Control (under the control of consequences). Symbolic Control (influnced by internal processes, self-instruction, imagining).
Describes his social learning theory as expectancy reinforcement of developed constructs. Learning situations are inextricably fused with needs requiring satisfaction through mediation by other.
Believe that there is a strong biological basis for development. Children bave a strong need to actively explore their surroundings and adapt to their environment. Their cognitive abilities will largely determine personality development.
Structural patterns of thought change as children mature and interact with their environment. Believed there were sequential periods in the growth or maturing of an individual's ability to think, gain knowledge, and develop an awarness of one's self and the environment. Defines and describes development as Adaptation.
a UNIVERSAL, CONSTRUCTIVIST model of development
Piaget's theory of development is best described as...
Is the most important process in intellectual functioning as it involves two process. (Assimilation and Accomodation) Schema is a general idea used to organize the world and guide our behavior and expectations
Assimilation and Accomodation
Adaptation entails 2 complementary processess-Assimilation and Accomodation. ______the incorporation of NEW KNOWLEDGE into existing cogntive schemas. _______the MODIFICATION of existing schemas to incorporate new knowledge
A child assimilates new information and attempts to fit it to present schemas and if this representation does not fit an _________takes place.
Is a balance between assimilaiton and accommodation. As a result of this resolution the child moves to a higher level of understanding-often abstraction.
2key achievments of Sensorimotor Stage (0-2)
Masters object permanence and 1. Object Permanence: understanding that objects continue to exist even when you can't see them.
Jean Piaget-Preoperational Stage
(2-7yrs) The stage that begins with the emergence of the semiotic function (representational thought) which enables a child to use a symbol, object, gesture or word to stand for something and thereby use language and to think about past and future events. Collective monologue - having separate conversations at the same time. Egocentrism-children consider their own point of view to be the only possible one.
Limations of the pre-operational stage
1. Egocentrim: child's inability to understand that others don't experience world in same way they do
Concrete operations (7-11)
(7-11yrs) Decentration, Reversibility, Conservation, transitivity (mental sorting), hierachical classification (categorize using classes and subclasses) mastery of logical operations. Masters Conservation.
A) Deferred Imitation B) Sensorimotor Stage
The ability to imitate someone or something no longer present is called (A)__________ and occurs during which stage (B)______________
Formal Operational Stage
During this stage of cognitive development, a person is able to think abstractly, relativistically, and hypothetically.
Piagets Preoperational stage begins with the emergence of (A)___________
It is representational thought. It enables a child to use a symbol, object, gesture, or word to stand for something.
What is Semiotic Thought?
Acknowledged the impact of biology on cognitive development, but placed greater emphasis on cultural factors. Two main terms are function and concepts. Five congitive functions: Language, Thinking, Perception, Attention, and Memory.
Zone of Proximal Development
Is the difference between what the child can achieve with guidance and what he can achieve through individual effort. (ex. the level at which the child can function independently)
A process where the child can move from a point of difficultly in learning to where, with help(teacher), he/she can eventually achieve the task independently.
Emphasizes that language is acquired through listening and imitating those in their environment. Language acquisition is a process of being reinforced for closer and closer approximations to the correct speech.
Emphasize innate, genetically-determined factors in language learning. This aquisition is through a language acquisition device (LAD). This device has universal features of language, and the child has the capacity to figure out the rules of any language. The child only needs to hear someone speak and they will learn to grasp the meaning.
4-6 regardless of complexity of their native language, True, It is sometime between infancy and puberty
According to the Nativist Approach proposal in language development - studies show that children master the basics of language between the ages of ______and It's_____ that Children from all cultures pass through the same stages of language development. What is critical period for language?
Uses both learning and nativist understanding. It is believed certain skills such as perceptual, cognitive, motor, social, and emotional development are vital to language acquisition. Regard language development as the result of a combination of biological and environmental factors.
Proposed infants had a Language Acquisition
Cognitive Development Theory Is associated with what theorist _______. He is known for terms assimilation and accomadation. Also, for establishing Periods of Cognitive development.
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory and Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Development are both associated with ____ ____
Jerome Bruner Theory-3 modes: Enactive mode, Iconic mode, Symbolic mode
_______motor behavior that is movement of arms, legs, and body muscle in such as fashion to represent some type of object. This mode is mainly physical, Ex. Frustrated child will shake a fist as an attempt to get attention. Ultimate is dance in which all movement is symbolic.
_______This mode centers on images and represents objects, an important development toward symbols. Child imagines pictures that represent something.
The child starts to devise symbols object, words, or gestures that stand for certain people, objects, or actions, but these symbols bear no resemblance to the real thing.
Is understood as higher ordered thinking and can be explained through two different approaches. Developmental and Definitional.
It stresses the impact of social interactions. For instance, in at least some cultures, adults seem to naturally use motherease when speaking to very young children.
What is the Social communications version of the interactionast approach?
When you speak more slowly, use shorter and simpler sentences, exageratte and repeat the ost important words, and frequently ask questions.
What is motherease
Five- Phonology, Morphology, syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics
How many dimensions is language described in? What are they?
Refers to what language sounds like. Are the smallest units of sound in a language
Refers to its rules for word formation. Are the smallest combination of sounds that have a meaning. Prepositions, prefixes, suffixes, and whole words_______.
Refers to the rules of grammar that specify how words are to be combined to form sentences
Specify how language is to be used in different social context. Pragmatics encompass rules related to turn taking, non verbal behaviors and the use of slang.
Refers to the organization of words, phrases, and sentences
What does "surface structure" refer to in language development?
Refers to the underlying meaning of sentences
What does "deep structure" refer to in language development
Chomskys notion of transformational grammar
Speaking involves transforming deep structure (meaning) into surface structure (grammatical sentences), while listening entails transforming a sentence's surface structure into it's deep structure
What are some stages of language acquisition?
Crying, Cooing and Babbling, Echolalia, and Expressive Jargon, Holophasic Speech, Telegraphic speech, vocabulary growth, grammatically correct sentences, metalinguistic awareness.
Beginning at 6-8 weeks, infants produce simple sounds that consist mainly of vowels and that are usually emitted when the infant is happy and contented
At about four months of age______which involves the repetition of simple consonant and vowel sounds (Ex. bi-bi-bi)
Beginning at about 9 months children imitate adult speech sounds and words without an understanding of their meaning
Follows echolalia by vocalizations of sounds that resemble sentences, but that again have no meaning
From 1-2 years children use holophases which ae single words that express whole phrases and sentences
By 18-24 months children string 2 or more words together to make a sentence
6-8 months old children become very anxious and fearful in the presence of strangers. It continues to age 2 and then diminishes.
Refers to severe distress that occurs when a child is separated from his or her primary caretaker-Begins 7-8 months of age and peaks in intensity at 14-18 months and then gradually declines
Name 4 patterns of Attachment ?
Securely attached infant is mildly upset by his/her mothers absence
Baby becomes very disturbed when left alone with a stranger but are ambivalent when their mother returns and may become angry and resist her atempts at physical contact.
An avoidant baby shows little distress when his or her mother leaves the room and avoids or ignores her when she returns
These children exhibit fear of their caretakers confused facial expressions, and a variety of other disorganized attachment behaviors
The Protest stage, The Despair stage, and The Detachment stage
Accorging to Bowlby a childs reaction to prolonged separation from a primary caretaker involves three stages:_____ The child refuses to accept the separation and responds by crying scraming, kicking and______ Stage-In which the child seems to give up all hope andbecomes quiet, inactive, and withdrawn. _______The child begins to accept attention from others, seems less unhappy, and may react with disinterest when visited by the caretaker
(A)________refers to a person's basic disposition. It is a characteristic that seems to be strongly affected by heredity and is to some degree apparent at birth.
Height, Weight, Intelligence, and Personality
What are some examples of Polygenic Traits?
brown eyes, dark hair, farsightedness
What are some physical traits that require only a single dominant gene?
Green, Hazel, and Blue eyes, Blond Hair, Nearsigntedness
What are some physical traits resulting from a pair of recessive genes?
The contribution of herdity to an observed characteristic is expressed in terms of a?
Refers to a Persons Genetic Inheritance
Refers to his/her observed characteristics which are attributable to a combination of heredity and environment
2. Restrictiveness vs. Permissiveness: Restrictive means contolling and demanding. Permissive means few rules, few demands, letting kids make own decisions.
Name and Define two basic dimensions of parenting.
4. Uninvolved: indifferent, undemanding, rejecting; keep kids at distance.
Name and Describe Baumrind's (1967) four basic parenting styles
Indulgent Permissive Parents
Are Warm and caring, but provide little control, make few demands, and are non punitive. Their children tend to be impulsive, self centered, easily frustrated, and low in achievement and independence
Indulgent Uninvolved Parents
Exhibit low levels of warmth and control, and they minimize the time and effort they spend with their children. Children of these parents have low self esteem, and are often impulsive moody and aggressive.
Discliplinary Techniques and A directive style that relies on physical punishment, threats, and deprivation
Power assertion and Induction are examples of what? And Power Assertion is.....
A lower-probability behavior is reinforced by a higher-probability behavior.
Ratio and Interval
The two basic classes of intermittent or partial reinforcement schedules are based________, on the number of responses and the_______, based on the time elapsed.
The most difficult intermittent schedule to extinguish is the_____.
Bronfenbrenners Ecological Systems Theory
(A)_________describes cognitive performance and development as involving interactions between the individual and his or her context, which may produce change in both the individual and the context.
The Microsystem, Mesosystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem
What are the four nested levels in Bronfenbrenners theory?
The face to face relationships between the person and the immediate setting (eg. People in the home, school, and workplace)
Is made up of the interrelationships between the major settings in which the person participates in (eg. between family members and between family members and school personnel)
Parts of environment child has no direct contact with but is impacted by (eg. neighborhood, church, mass media, government, parents workplace)
List the needs in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs from lower to higher level.
Physiological, Safety & Love/Belonging, Self-esteem, Self-actualizing
List in order which of Maslow's needs dominate in the Neonate phase, which dominate during Childhood, which dominate during Adolescents, and which dominate during Adulthood.
Cross sectional research is
A research that works with groups of subjects of different ages but who are similar
Longitudinal research is
When the same group is observed for a certain length of time
Sequential research is
The use of both cross-sectional and longitudinal methods together - Also called Cross-sequential, sequential, time-sequential
According to Freud, the mind is separated by 3 levels which are
Conscious - Mental experiences that can be recalled
The 3 structures of personality as defined by Freud are
The Id - Symbol of unconscious, contains inherent biological drives
What are Freuds Psychosexual Stages?
Oral (Birth to 1 yr)Fixation results in dependence passivity, gullibility, sarcasm, and orally focused habits (smoking, nailbiting, overeating, etc)
Anal (1-3 yrs)
Fixaion produces anal retentiveness (Stinginess, selfishness, obsessive compulsive behavior) or anal expulsiveness (cruelty, destructiveness, messiness)
Phallic (3-6 yrs)
Resolution of the Oedipal conflict. Fixation can produce a phallic character which involves the sexual exploitation of others.
Latency Stage (6-12 yrs)
During this stage libidinal energy is diffuse rather than focused on any one area of the body and the emphasis is on deveoping social skills rather than achieving sexual gratification.
Genital Stage (12 +)
Libido is again centered in the genitals and successful outcome in this stage occurs when sexual desire is blended with affection to produce mature sexual relationships.
Both link to cognitive development
What do Piaget and Kohlberg's theories of moral development have in common?
Acculturation has four forms. Name them.
Assimilation, Integration, Separation, Marginality
_______Involves identifying solely with the majority culture.______Is charecterized by identification with and involvement in both cultures._____ Involves identifying exclusively with one's own culture._______ Marked by a lack of identification with either culture
Erikson considers ___________ to be the primary task of adolescence
Piaget's Stages of moral development (and ages)
1) Premoral Stage--prior to age 6, exhib little concer for rules
Kohlberg's Model of Moral Development
1)Punisment and Obedience Orientation: goodness or badness of an act depends on the consequences. Right=AVOID punishment
3)Good boy/Good Girl orientation: Right Acition is the one that is liked or approved by others
5)Morality of Contract, Individual Rights, and Democratically Accepted Laws--the morally right action is the one that is consistent with democratically determined laws
What are Kubler Ross' five stages of Death
A)Denial and Isolation (No, this isn't happening to me)
Carl Rogers-Person Centered Theory
Ecounter Groups-are often open and wide range of concerns and are often referred to as personal growth experience.
Carl Rogers-Person Centered Theory
Is also known as intensive experiential group therapy.
Carl Rogers-Person Centered Theory
Individuals strive to become fully functioning and self-actualized This attitude and set of behaviors become internalized and allow the person to be ever expanding and attaining his/her full capacities. Person has interanl drive to become a whole person.
Carl Rogers-Person Centered Theory
Theory relies on natural ordering tendencies of life. Each person is aware of his/her incongruence and is capable of reorganizing to achieve congruence.
Carl Rogers-Person Centered Theory
Maladjustment is when a person distorts or denies one experience and therefore is in a state of incongruence between self-concept and experiences.
Carl Rogers-Person Centered Theory-Key Terms
Empathy, concreteness, respect, trust, genuiness, immediacy, formative tendency, readiness, and facilitator.
Carl Rogers-Person Centered Theory-Method
Therapist gives up professional role. Individuals grow in awareness as relationships are reinforced in the group. Their inner wisdom and trust is to allow the formative tendency to operate.
Carl Rogers-Person Centered Theory-Method
Leader does not force change but encourages the here and now of experiencing. Group procedures reinforce the self-knowing and understanding of others.
Genuineness, Unconditional positive regard, and Empathy
Therapist must utilize three attiudes to assist the person in the formative tendency.
Therapy did not progress in stages, rather it is an evolution in development, which reflects more of a squencing of events and process.
Person Centered-Role of Leader
The leader is called a facilitator and is interpersonally effective in creating a climate of acceptance and non judgment. Brings alertness and wilingness to the group. Leader participates as a member, giving up authority.
Person Centered-Role of leader
Devotes a willingness to recognize that others in the group are able to lead, self-discloses when appropriate, strives for personal influence, and believes members are capable of moving in their own direction.
Fritz Perls-Gestalt Therapy Groups
Is composed of existential, experimental, and phenomenology. The basic philosophy is that much of what each person needs to live in the world is outside of his/her ego boundary.
Fritz Perls-Gestalt Therapy Groups
To bring material through the ego boudary, the person needs to be aware of the need and to expand the energy to bring this transportation about to completeness, wholeness.
Is referred to as bringing something through the ego boundary.
Fritz Perls-Gestalt Therapy
The person is born with capacity to cope with life. The childs development is interferred with and must introject, project, retroflect, repress, and suppress instinctual strivings to be noraml.
Is self-awareness and awareness of others.
Gestalt Therapy-Key Terms
Denial aggression, impasse, contact, figure, rehearsal, background, awareness, here and now, unfinished business, introject, presonality, cliche, playing, implosive, explosive, genuine, I-thou, closure, elasticity, proactive, rounds, role reversal, empty chair, top dog/underdog dialogue.
All memebrs are seen in individual therapy to asses the degree and severity of disturbance. In additon, the members attitudes and willingness to participate are assessed.
The goal is to move from environmental support to self-support. The curative process is centered upon awareness. The client proceeds to recognize parts and integrate into a whole. Other issues are the here and now, recognizing and accepting polarities, and re-experiencing business in the present.
With awareness, clients are able to recognize blocks and impasses. Therapy is an effort to assist the client to discover within himself/herself the resources to resolve these blocks and impasses.
Gestalt Therapy-Group Stages
Everything is based upon the Here and Now. The past and future do not exist except in relationship to the Here and Now. A stage evolution of trust and safety, establishing norms, exploration, confrontation, confluence, and working. They view each event as composed of a cycle that includes centering, sensation, awarness, energy, action, contact, resolution, and withdrawal.
Gestalt Therapy-Role of Leader
The leader is to challenge members, confront and ecourage while in the Here and Now. The leader is facilitator and provides feedback, perceptions, attitudes, and feelings.
Gestalt Therapy-Role of Leader
The leader is a model in the I-Thou relationship and determines much of what will take place with whom and when.
Gestalt Therapy-Role of Member
Active contact, interactional, self-awarness. Be willing to re-experience contact.
Gestalt Therapy- GroupTechniques
Action-oriented, language exercises (it talk, you talk, questions, qualifiers, shoulds, oughts, can't), nonverbal, take responsibility, matching rounds, fantasy, rehearsal, reversal, exaggeration, exercises, dream work, first person.
Gestalt Therapy-Group Goals
The outcome is for members to have more awareness of themselves in the Here and Now. Each member will remove layers of neurosis(phony, phobic, impasse, implosive, and explosiveness).
Rudolph Dreikurs (primary group developer).
Alfred Adler-Adlerian Philosophy
Basic assumption is the social nature of humans and based upon the holistic view of man. Believed in family education. His approach is called socioteleological. The primary motivations are social forces.
The individual is striving for significance, that is, to achieve a unique identity and to belong to a group. A key term is INFERIORITY, which is the motivating force as individuals goal orient for mastery, power, and perfection.
Alfred Adler-Adlerian Key terms
Holism, autonomy, creativity, choice, teleolgy, lifestyle, phenomenology, inferiority, identity, confusion, ego integrity, family constellation, basic mistakes, earliest recollection, psychological disclosures, personal identity.
Alfred Adler-Adlerian Group Method
The group is the setting in which inferiority can be challenged. The mistaken beliefs and values can be uprooted and affected by the group. These mistaken beliefs and values are the foundation of social and emotional problems.
Alfred Adler-Adlerian Group Method
It is within the group that members can feel a part of a larger group and attain a sense of belonging. The individual will overcome helplessness through compensation.
Alfred Adler-Adlerian Group Stages
Is viewed in phases, (1)Developing a relationship (2)Analysis and assessment (3)Insight (4)Reorientation
Alfred Adler-Adlerian Group
The group process is linked through the interpretation of a person's early history and the individual, interpersonal, and group process goals.
Adlerian-Group Leader Role
Interpret and guide for change by understanding present bahavior, monitor group process, establish structure and guidelines, challenge client's beliefs and goals and encourage therapeutic conditions.
Adlerian-Group Leader Role
The leader is a participant in the group, and an effective personality is important.
Adlerian-Role of Member
Provide support for other members, assist in interpretations for others, open to alternatives, attitudues, and beliefs.
Interview regarding family constellation for atmosphere and early recollections, look for significance in birth order, lifestyle assesment, early recollection, interpretation, confrontation, ecouragement.
The desired outcome is the active growth and actions of the person within the group. The individual should experience a more socially oriented and goal-directed growth. Individual should come more in contact with his/her family or origin and achieve social adjustment.
William Glasser-Reality Therapy
Basic concept is "Sucess Identity" whereby each person has an internal force that drives the individual toward this success identity.
William Glasser-Reality Therapy
A behavioral change will produce a change in ones identitiy. This theory is active, directive, and didactic. The theory advocates helping people take control of their lives.
William Glasser-Reality Therapy
Individual attempts to meet psychological and physiological needs. Control theory as a part of this theory explains how the brain works.
Reality Therapy-Key Tenents
Glasser states that all behavior is "Generated within us for the purpose of satisfying one or more basic needs".
Reality Therapy-Key Tenents
Glasser maintains that one of four internal needs of belonging, power, freedom, and fun and the physiological need of survival, bring individuals to counseling.
Reality Therapy-Key Terms
Belonging power, freedom, fun, doing, thinking, feeling, physiology, success identity, involvement, value judgment, present vs. past, commitment.
Cycle of counseling in a rational process. It is a process and not necessarily procedural. Involves the environment, counselor attitudes, exploring wants, needs and perceptions, focus on current behavior, evaluating self, plan and act, and commitment.
Glasser rejects the term "Mental illness," emphasizes the present, is unconcerned with transference or the unconscious, stresses evaluating one's own behavior in light of personal and social values, and finding a better way to assuming responsibility.
Reality Therapy-Group Stages
No stages. Only eight steps. Control theory is a process, not a procedure. Steps are: (1)Develope a meaningful relationship, (2)Emphasize the present behavior, (3)Stress the client actions that are getting them what they want, (4)Plan positively, (5)Establish a commitment to a plan, (6)Except no excuse, (7)Apply no punishment and (8)Never give up.
Reality Therapy-Group Leader
Active and directive, involved, maintain control, challenge, model, relationship development, leader of discussion, tech, set limits, connect real life with learning, confront excuses, and encourage strengths.
Reality Therapy-Role of Member
Supportive, encouraging, creating relationships with other members, setting goals, making commitments, acting.
Reality Therapy-Group Technique
Questioning, self-help procedures, humor, paradoxical techniques, interviewing, no excuses for failure, contract method, role playing,
Reality Therapy-Group Goals
To move beyond self-defeating behavior and to become unstuck. Group members realize they can take control of their lives.
Preventive; teach coping strategies or life-style characteristics that can reduce the incidence of a problem. sometimes called affective education groups or psychological education groups, leadership requires little training.
Group that deals with problem, but is not usually severe (ex. grief group). Leadership requires some training.
Deal with severe, longstanding problems or disturbances; has more of an individual focus. May be psychodynamic; leadership requires much training.
T-Groups (Training Groups)
May be called laboratory-training groups or sensitivity groups; called microlab if short in duration.
T-Groups (Training Groups)
These groups are often used to help employees build and improve interpersonal skills.Help people from organizational settings, develop human relations skills.
Self-Help or Support Groups
This group of people share a common problem such as weight control or drinking - leader may not be a professional counselor - members share knowledge and encourage each other.
Are associated with Rogers. The focus is on the here-and-now experience and includes the I-Thou encounter. Marathon groups are the most commonly known type. Emphasize personal growth.
Rely on long sessions (over a weekend or several days) to break down defenses and facades of members so the members can confront issues in an honest, real, and genuine way.
Was called a personal growth group. This group was first defined by Charles Cooley as face-to-face experience where intimate cooperation was the norm.
Coined the term "group psychotherapy" founder of psychodrama and organized the first society for group therapies. Psychodrama, which can be considered a precursor to group therapy.
Frank Parsons and Jesse Davis
Started group guidance, he devoted one class per week to vocational and moral guidance to develop life skills and values.
Dr. Richard Allen
Coined the terms "group counseling and case conference" and utlized group counseling with senior-high school students.
Jacob Moreno and Kurt Lewin
identified group dynamics
Formalized the study of sociometrics
This term refers to the attitudes of individuals that are strongly rooted in the groups in which people belong and the relationships the share with one another and He went on to point out that group members will evaluate one another based upon their conformity to group norms.
Introduced "higher order," a term similar to social structure, which includes cohesion, leadership, and status, studied social clubs and political groups.
conducted a classic study on the autokinetic effect. Individual responses were adjusted to meet group standards.
Conducted a study on individual independence from group forces. He found that groups encourage conformity and discourage nonconformity.
studied small group problem solving leader task and developed it to study group interaction.
focused on group cohesiveness and group dynamics that promoted the progression of a group.
Is intended to prevent the development of problems. These groups are often used by schools and other youth organizations in an effort to prevent behaviors such as teen pregnancy or drinking.
It consists of educational vocational personal social information not otherwise taught in academic courses. "Affective education group" or psychological education group" are other names for this type.
Its interpersonal and remedial. Described as "growth engendering to provide the motivation for changed and action." goals of preventing problems and helping participants to grow and develop.
Is a dynamic, interpersoanl process focusing on consious thought and behavior and involving the therapy functions of permissiveness, orientation to reality, catharsis, mutual trust, caring, understanding, acceptance, and support.
It is depth-oriented remedial and rehabilitative. It is supportive, reconsturctive, involves depth analysis, is analytical, focuses on the unconsious, emphasis on neurotics and serve emotional problems, and is long term. lead by a professional with advanced training.
Members have three types of emotional attachments: (1) autonomous reactions, (2) dyads and (3) group-as-a whole phenomenon.
Individual therapy within a group, treatment are applied to the individual.
A transactional group, emphasis is on subgroups. The group becomes the field onto which the indiviual displays his or her uniqueness and ways of relating to others.
Group dynamics are emphaszied, the group as a whole is studied.
An unstructured environment where members are responsible for building out of the interaction a group which can help meet their needs for support, feedback, etc.
Deals with a single problem such as anger management or drinking. A predetermined gaol and plan designed to assist each group member in reaching their established goal with a minimum of frustration.
Can be any size, members come together to achieve some purpose such as finding a missing person, raising money, or political rally group, and will disperse once the goal has been reached.
Personal responsibility and action are two main themes. A support system type of group is one in which individuals with common problems and life dilemmas bind together and create a protective environment from psychological stress. Leader centered and can be of any size.
Any group to which an individual relates his attitudes. These attitudes are dependent upon, shaped by, or anchored in a particular group.
Originated by Michael and Enid, this group was to use focused discussions whereby training students, residents, or physicians learned about when and how they did or did not respond empathetically to patients.
Is the way the participants interact with each other and with the counselor or leader. The goals of the group, the content of the discussion, the process of the session, and the development of trust among the group members.
Are the forces operating in a group, such as what is expected (norms), feelings (nonverbal) belonging (cohesion) and being safe.
Forces in a group includes "nonverbal behaviors, communication patterns, levels of participation, expression of feelings, and resistances and avoidances."
May be thought of as the interplay of the group forces (dynamics) that make up or lead to the development of the group.
Ethics in Group
Screening members, confidentiality, voluntary/involuntary participation, leaving a group, coercion and pressure, imposing counselor values, dual relationships, techniques, goal development, consultation, termination, evaluation and follow-up, refferals, and professional development.
Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning
Tuckman and Jensen developed Interpersonal Charateristics and Tasks to be performed
(1)Initial Stage-Orientation and Exploration
Anxiety and insecurity, a need for trust. Primary tension is associated with new surroundings and people.
Tasks involve developing identity in a group and to determine how active a participant intends to be by his or her commitment.
The leader models to set the tone and shape norms, assists in the development of group and individual goals, brings hidden agenda into the open.
The member learns the fundamentals of group participation, becomes familiar with group expectations, engages in minimal risk and emotional exploration. Atmosphere is one of superficial social acceptance determines posistion in the group and decides the degree of self-disclosure that will be attempted expresses insecurity and dependence on leader conflicts between members avoided, trust and mistrust and resistance toward leader.
(2)Transition and Resistance Stage
Characterized by cohesiveness and intimacy. Secondary tension is intragroup tension where member differences are felt and expressed.
Transition and Resistance-Tasks and Leader
Working stage for behavior change, and conflict and struggle for control. (Leader)- reinforcement, caring, confrontation
Transition and Resistance-Members
Interacts openly and directly, expresses some amount of risk with knowledge, respect will be forthcoming, resolves difficulties with sensitivity not judgement, feels a degree of comfort and support a sense of hopefulness.
(3)Working Stage-Cohesion and Productivity
Exploration of problems and actions for change, issue development, productiveness.
Cohesion development, risk-sharing
Reinforcement, search for common themes, interpretation, modeling, aware of therapeutic factors.
Shares issues, provides feedback to others challenges and support members.
Final Stage- Consolidation and Termination
Transferring what they learned in the group to their outside environment, consolidation of learning, summarizing, integrating, and interpreting the group experience.
Sepration anxiety, unfinished business
Termination issues unresolved, reinforce changes, feedback to others, applied learning.
Feelings of separation, generalize new learning, provide feedback.
Model outlined as a "Phase Model": (1)Orientation, (2)Conflict, (3)Emergence, (4)Reinforcement.
Phase One: Orientation
Establish common basis for functioning, communication oriented to each other, task dimension approached.
Form opinions about their own position in group, compete for status within group, assert individuality, persuasive attempts at changing other's opinions.
Phase Three: Emergence
Group settles on norms, moves toward consensus via ambiguity, conflict continues.
Phase Foure: Reinforcement
Sense of direction, consensus of opinion, group identity, genuine sense of accomplishment, reinforcement of group decisions.
Levine's (4)Recurring Phases:
Proposed a phase model with intergrated conflicts which are to be resolved.
This phase is drawn from the play of young children, where they play next to but with not each other. Members show increasing levels of trust in the therapist, other members, and the group situation in order to free their autonomous strivings and actions.
(Parallel) Authority Crisis:
A challenge to centrality and political power of the therapist.
Is a degree in centrality of the therapist in group relationships and an increase in member relationships. Affiliation of pairings and subgrouping (conflict/power struggles).
(Inclusion) Intimacy Crisis:
Pair and subgroup empathy becomes important dimension in cohesion).
This phase reveals the capacity for intimate relationships and a deeping of relationships.
(Mutuality) Seperation Crisis:
Any phase, inherent in authority and imtimacy, deal with loss or potential loss.
Anxiety, Power, Norms, Personal Growth, Interpersonal Relationships (Cohen and Smith)
Are good for growth, self-study, and task groups. Must be resolved if group is to Mature. Leaders and members neet to explore issues underlying these themes. Envisioned group development not so much in stages, or phases, but rather in themes, which cut across most groups.
Is the science of control mechanisms and their associated communications systems. Suggests that communication between input and output is feedback to members. This behavior is what allows or permits group members to change or adjust their behavior as a result of new information.
The degree to which members of the group desire to remain in the group, total field forces acting on members to remain in the group, quality of a group, individual pride, commitment, meaning, ability to weather crises, ability to maintain itself over time.
The collective expression of personal belonging leading to greather tolerance, deeper association, and conerns for one's co-members. Involves groups attractiveness to the participants, inclusion and solidarity.
Attraction of a group for its members, the coordination of the efforts of group members and level of motivation of group members to do a task with zeal and efficiency.
How Cohesiovenes unifies a group
Fosters action-oriented behaviors such as self-disclosure, immediacy, mutuality, confrontation, risk-taking, and insight. Assist group maintenance, increases group influence over the members.
Is a complex social act that is framed in the context of the group experience. There are two levels: sharing reactions to what is happening in the group and revealing relevant and unresolved personal issues, goals, aspirations, fears, strenghts etc.
Is more in depth sharing of the where, when, why, and how of the disclosure.
The interactional aspect of self disclosure, that is the here and now of why the member chose to share at this and how he/she feels having shared, and whether he/she has future concerns for having shared. Yalom suggest that leaders and members need to shift from this ______to ______responding when a disclosure takes place.
Yaloms Here and Now two components
(1)Member Awareness-member awarness to his/her feelings and responses to other members in the group. (2) illumination process-when the group is able to reflect upon itself and understand its own process-Yalom calls this the self-reflective loop-This occurs through the usuage of self-disclosure, catharsis, and feedback.
Normative, Infromational, and Interpersonal
3-Conformity influences in groups
Social exchange theory advocates that_____is based upon having control of valuable resoruces, these resources can be in the form of ability, material, means of punishment, position, identity, and information.
When the member is able to distribute both positive and/or negative rewards. If the leader is the only one who can dispense the wanted type of reward, this further increases the reward power.
The ability to dispense punishment to those who do not comply with the group's norms and standards. One positive is that it can be used to bring out into the open a conflict to be resolved.
Is a right given by some socal sanctions (position) and entitles the person to require and demand compliance. (Teachers, law officers, supervisors, are examples). Members generally believe its their duty to follow these people. Is generally used to arbitrate or mediate a conflict.
Is derived from the members who desire to be identified with this group. The attraction and respect for the power holder is key element. Members of a group like, respect, and want to be like this leader.
Is when the member has superior skills and abilities which are important to the group membership. This superior skill is usually a special knowledge or skill, and this leaer is looked upon as a very trustworthy person.
Is needed to accomplish a goal or task, and is not available eleswhere.
Is when a member is playing one or more roles that are at odds with each other.
Is when the person is unsure of the behavioral requirements.
As the group progresses through the process toward maturity or imcompleteness, different member roles emerge.
Are those ease the strain and stress of the group interaction.
(Initiatior contributor)-suggest new ideas, (Information seeker)-requests factual data, (Opinion seeker)-clarifies value premises, Inforamtion giver-brings own experience, (Opinion giver)-express own beliefs, (Elaborator)-gives examples/rationale, (Orienter)-summarizes, questions direction, (Evaluator)-compare standards to group activity.
(Encourager)-praises, agree, accepts, (Harmonizer)-mediates and relieves tension, (Compromiser)-comes halfway, yields to move, (Gatekeeper)-facilitates participation, (Standard setter)-expresses standards for group, (Observer)-records group process, (Follower)-goes along.
(Aggressor)-deflates status, (Blocker)-negativistic, (Recognition seeker)-calls attention to self, (Self-confessor)- expresses personal thoughts, feelings, actions, (Playboy)-lacks involvement, (Dominator)-asserts authority/manipulates, (Help seeker)-gets sympathy.
Are rules that are designed to govern the behavior of the members. Are intended to integrate the actions of the group members. Are to reflect the appropriate behavior, attitudes, and perceptions of the the members. "Conformity and compliance are two intended purposes of instituting this in groups.
Are those in which members treat each other politely and reflect desirable behaviors for the group members.
Identify negative behaviors and are to be avoided.
3 Characteristics of norms-Expectations, Evaluations, Enforcement
________are standards which lay out behaviors to be performed and behaviors to be avoided. ______Is the process of judging whether or not the members meet the normative standards. _______Entails the punishment or reinforcement when norms are broken or adhered to in order that future members are aware of effects.
2 types of norms-Pivotal and Peripheral
______Norms, members use reason and logic in treating other members politely. ______Norms, members are simply rude to one another.
Group Leadership Standards
Core knowledge and skill competencies, skill acquisition mandates learning how to open and close session work, model appropriate behaviors, display appropriate self-disclosure, give and receive feedback and help members attribute meaning to experiences, help to integrate and apply learning, and apply ethical principles in the group.
Group Leadership Standards
During the skill acquisition, the standards recommened 20 hours of core supervised experiences with a minimum of 10 hours for supervised experiences. The second level is to specialize in one of four types of groups-Facilitative, Task, Counseling, and Psychotherapy.
Better group coverage, Compatibility, Pragmatic considerations, Sharing responsibilites, Differences in personality, Support for low-functioning members, Continuity of care, Role-modeling and role-playing, Feedback, Training, Shared knowledge.
Lack of coordinated efforts, Too leader-focused, Competition, Collusion (informal alliance), Pacing (equivalent), Leaders can act as rivals, Triangulation.
When leaders emerge from within groups
Scapegoat, Defiant, Emotional, Task.
blaming someone who may not be responsible for the action or event.
The leader will act out his/her ambivalence about being in a group, will take everyone else on, and is very difficult to deal with.
The leader is most concerned about his/her expression of feelings and in eliciting that from other. He/she will model openness, authenticity, and support. Most likely to stimulate cohesion and intimacy. The negative, may make a group uncomfortable if it has not reached that stage of development.
He/she becomes the authority of the group, sets norms, facilitates equitable interaction clarifies goals, and will keep the discussion focused.
The leader, group and setting all influence each other.
Social interchange takes place between the leader and the member.
Leader reinforces the change process by uniting members and changing their values, beliefs, and needs through the members motivation, confidence, and satisfaction.
A legititmate use of power given by membership.
Leader organizes and encourages the direction of goal attainment.
Intrapersonal Leadership style
Tends to reflect a one-to-one interaction with a focus on the intrapsychic or internal conflicts of the person.
Interpersonal leadership style
Focuses upon the relationships which are formed in the here and now.
Autocractc leadership style
This leader is Self-centered "I" and a need for power and prestige, this type of leader often fosters hostility and dependence. Where urgent and quick decision is needed this leader would be the most effective. Likes control and to be in charge. Members tend to be unaware of what is expected of them, goal attainment for this leader is for the group and not necessarily the individual members. This leader usually demands conformity and obedience, gives advice, and sees him/herself as expert. This leader is usually charismatic and is most effective during times of crisis.
Democratic Leadership style
This is a problem-solving style. A "We" concept in the development of a group leads to better decisions because of a desire to serve the group. Power is derived from the group, while responsibility and authority are shared. Leader is motivated by persuasion and tolerance. Leader will guide instead of direct.
Laissez-Faire Leadership style
A non-leader style with complete freedom. Rarely does the leader take part in discussion. Members make all decisions. Is passive or anarchy-type leader, an active listner. Leadership style may be effective if all members are committed to a plan.
Diplomatic Leadership style
Leader is interested in personal gain and will manipulate the members to achieve that end. Some descriptors of this method are manipulator, personal gain, recognition, and hidden agenda.
Bureaucratic Leadership style
Leadership is utlized in social groups. Will use a fixed set of rules and tends to be impersonal and rule-centered. Tends to avoid interacting with members, yet demands loyality.
Attempts to use his/her feelings and behaviors to weaken the leader's function. This member thrives on tension, conflict hostility and chaos. Anger and control are often the cause of this behavior. (Leader Technique)-Reframe or block this action, confrotation becomes the response for most situation that continues.
Attemtps to remain out of exercises or involvement of the group. (Leader Technique)-Affirm these members, confront and interpret what is happening, invite them to participate.
Attempts to capture the groups attention. Also refered as entitled member, overly talkative. Will sabotage help, come late miss sessions and is needy and demanding. (Leader Technique)-Confront this behavior and interpret how this behavior affects interpersonal behavior within the group, cutting off is appropriate.
May be nonassertive, reflective, and shy. Usually lacks trust in the leader. (Leader Technique)-Should determine the reason for silence. Inviting some members to speak by asking questions that can produce information can do this. Confront, create structure which is more conducive to working with silent member, and even pursue an individual session.
Member utilizes_____in an attempt to hide anger and is utilized by some who find it difficult to express their feelings. (Leader Technique)-Interpret what is happening and ecourage members to promote feedback. Help the person recognize and effectively deal with his/her masked feelings.
Focuses on others in an attempt to take on the leader's role. This person will ask questions, give advice, and remain out of the helping process as though he/she is not one of the group members. (Leader Technique)-Can help teach the person that personal involvement through some level of self-disclosure is more helpful than the role of leader.
Those who fear the intensity of emtional expression.
A group member does not understand the depth of difficulties or hurt (hopelessness).
When a client has a debilitating emotion such as anger, hate, grief, etc. and wants to blame others for this conditon.
The individual is obsessed with a love object.
When an individual doubts his/her ability or coping skills and interferes with effective action.
Member is often one who has been badgered, over-disciplned, and abandoned. He/she oftne reveals hostile feelings in a group.
Member often internalizes responsibility and blames himself/herslef for failures in his/her life and an inability to control external events.
Members makes an undue effort to meet the needs of others. The member tends to go with what other members deem important. Assertive training is a recomended treatment.
May be an aspect of the counseling process, and as such fear of the unknown and suspicion are common behaviors of this member. Also, they tend not to interact in open discussion regarding their problems.
Leader Technique-Cutting Off
Is to stop what is occuring or to refocus but stay with the member. Is often blocking or intervening. Can be used when leader wants to shift the focus.
Important Time to Cut off
When the member is rambling, sharing comments which conflicts with the groups puropse, saying something hurtful or inaccuracies, rescuing, arguing,session in nearning the end.
As the rate of which the group moves. Influenced by the leader or members rate of speech and pattern. This pattern includes tone, pitch, volume, and rate. If group moves to slowly memers will lose interest, become bored and frustrated and wander. Voice is key.
Leader Technique-Setting Tone
Is conveying and setting a mood for the members, the setting or disposition that is expected for them. The voice as it implies messages of softness, firmness, and lightness, will often convey to the group whether the setting is one of sensitivity, seriousness, or freedom of direction.
The connecting of the meaning of what one member says or contributes in a session. Leader or member has to be insightful and synthesize a common bridge of understanding. Typing to togther.
Keeping the attention on the content or topic and is an important skill. Rounds and dyads are used to accomplish this.
When to shift the focus
When has been on one person, topic or activity for too long. In addtition, a shift should be made when the focus does not match the purpose or when a new focus is needed.
How to hold the focus
Skills used to when focus begins to shift is cutting off, making rounds, or forming dyads.
Leader Technique-Drawing Out
A skill to elicit group members comments. To elicit more involvement.
Method for drawing out
Rounds are short stimulas statements/questions in which each member responds. Can be specific words, phrases, homework, adjectives, feelings about how they are at this time in the group and feelings about one another.
Method for drawing out
The direct method uses direct questions, while indirect method can come about through the use of dyads, rounds, written expressions, and role-playing.
A useful way of involving everyone. Request that each person reflect verbally on a topic. A way to check-in, which can be in the form of a descriptive word describing a feeling state at the beginning of the group.
Used to redirect, focus in on a topic, draw out members, center upon differeing thoughts or feelings, and energize a group. Can bring out information quickly, focus members, and at different levels involve members. Can be a designated word or a number to reflect the here and now. This will give the group members a sense of where they are in relation to everyone else. A word or phrase is another form of this technique and is usually a reaction to an exercise or a dilemma.
Is the benefit a person recieves by observing and imitating members within the group.
Curative Factors-Interpersonal Input
Refers to the individual learning how other people perceive him or her.
Is a sense of liberation, of acquiring skills for another time. The history of psychopathology provides reference to the effort to cleanse, from confessions to blood-letting. Has value later in the group process than in the early course of the group.
Is a precondition for therapy, enhances the development of other important developmental aspects of the group process. Provides the safety and support that allows members to explore themselves, to request interpersonal feedback, and experiment with new behavior.
Curative Factors-Self Understanding
Is an intellectual understanding of the relationship between past and present. Encouraging individuals to recognize, integrate, and give free expression to previous dissociated parts.
Curative Factors-Interpersonal Output
Is a social behavior in how to be helpfully responsive to others. Individuals learn methods to resolve conflicts and are less likely to be judgmental when one learns to express accurate empathy.
Fosters responsibility, basic isolation, contingency, and recognition of mortality, consequences, and how to conduct personal lives.
Individuals learn that their problems are not unique in the sense that they are the only ones to have a problem. Others have similar problems/concerns. Members learn that they have unacceptable thoughts, problems, impulses, and fantasies like those of others.
Curative Factors-Instillation of Hope
Is a reflection of faith in a treatment mode(faith, optimism, placebo, etc.) People observe others imporving. It is helpful to draw attention to this behavior. Pre-group interview is the place to begin this technique and especially important during the early phase of the group process.
The quality of unselfish concern for the welfare of others, regard for others, both natural and moral; devotion to the interests of others; brotherly kindness
Curative Factors-Family Reenactment
Yalom asserts that individuals who come to the group do so because of an unsuccessful first family experience. This can be corrective experience of the primary family and can provide a sense of belonging.
In the early life of a group, providing direction takes precedence. Serves to function as initial binding until other therapeutic factors become operative.
Individuals learn and change from observing and watching the process.
Corrective Emotional Experience
Believed if an individual were re-exposed to a highly charged emotional experience he/she did not handle in his/her past, that repair was possible.
A leader technique used to counteract nonporductive group work. Must be done with sensitivity and skill in order not ot come across as attacking the individual, should focus on the behavior and not on the person. Most appropriate for behaviors like scapegoating, group pressure and questioning. Breaking confidence, invading privacy, giving undue amounts of advice, storytelling, and gossiping are behaviors for this technique.
A term used to denote the easing away from emotional interaction and toward cognitive reflection. One of three methods used to assist the leader in the termination process of a group. The other two methods are setting time limits, and modeling approprate termination skills in closing a group.
Type of leader develops an irrational devotion by followers. Has an unusual amount of referent and legitimate powers. Followers of this leader are trusting and tend to worship them without reference to any social norm. Appeal to large groups who are dissatisfied with some element of society or the environment.
Through gourp scocial influence there is a change in beliefs or actions. Usually improves the functioning of a group.
This is the transmission of cues triggering behaviors in others that may be similar to the one transmitting. Often causes members to follow suit. Spontaneous pickup imitation.
An event that has the power to shap or influence the group positively or negatively. Group problems, problem behaviors, critical issues, and critical first-time behaviors to illustrate this.
A theory to explain the group mind. This theory suggests that a powerful norm emerges in a group and becomes the standard for behavior. These are norms that become relevant at the time, based upon the makeup of the group.
Makes individual feel worthy. Two methods are, first to be open to negotiations and to be flexible with the option most liked. Second, is to give power through the choice.
Is an existential term that entails a physical and pychological contact in a group context. Is of an intense nature between individuals. A result is a sensitivity training in which individuals gain deep interpersonal intimacy with one another. Fosters personal growth.
It takes three components to make up a unified entity (group): common fate, similarity, and proximity. Is framed in a place in which all members experience the same outcome while displaying similar behaviors, yet are close enough to one another (proximity) to apper together.
Farewell Party Syndrome
A behavior demonstrated by some members of a group who desire to avoid what they have learned in a group. These members tend to accentuate the positive aspects of what occured in a group.
Firo-Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation
People orient themselves toward people or away from them.
Is to form subgroups to monitor each other's behavior. Each member on the inside circle is matched with a member on the outside circle. Outside member will be observing to provide feedback, to conduct interchanges, to increase the awareness of group members to the process of the group.
Appers as antisocial behaviors of impulsiveness, irritability, incapcity to resaon, and exaggeration of sentiments. Members who feel anonymous and invulnerable will succomb to behavioral contagions, passing emotions from one another in a group and are suggestible to a collective mind.
is a type of thought exhibited by group members who try to minimize conflict and reach consensus without critically testing, analyzing, and evaluating ideas. Individual creativity, uniqueness, and independent thinking are lost in the pursuit of group cohesiveness, as are the advantages of reasonable balance in choice and thought that might normally be obtained by making decisions as a group.
Here and now
Irv Yalom teaches and leads groups in present experiencing utilizing the self-reflective loop composed of self-disclosure and feedback.
Are introductory exercises or techniques designed to develop communication between two or more individuals.
In communicating, the person recieving the message will reduce the amount of information he/she has to receive by remembering less of the message. As a result the message becomes shorter and shorter, thus concise and easier to grasp and retell.
Is credited with the term group dynamics, was interested in what motivated individuals. Was a gestalt psychologists.
An individual will go against the leader-authority when he/she feels the power of the group behind him/her.
Langer and Piper, coined this term which refers to the tendency of an individual to process information sluggishly and to adhere to a rigid fram of reference that is inappropriate and inadequate for coping with emerging issues.
Norms or Norming
Has developed when members have a "WE" feeling and subscribe to those rules both overt and covert.
Is an equity norm suggesting that the payoffs should equal the amount of input to the task.
As the group increases in size, it will become less productive.
Developed by Jacob Moreno, describing a technique for measuring the social relationships linking group members.
An interpersonal communication pattern of a group member speaking immediately after ther person across from him/her has spoken.
Started at the National Training Laboratory in Bethel, Maine, and are considered to be a part of he human potential movement. The purpose for them was the development and understanding of theory, group dynamics, and group work.
The American Society for Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama was formed in 1942 by
1943 founded the American Group Psychotherapy Association. Then In December 2003 the Association for Specialists in Group Work was established as a division of the American Counseling Association.
Using reasoning to protect oneself from emotional stress or conflict.
divided counseling groups into 3 types - primary or guidance, secondary or counseling, and tertiary or therapy.
A person in a group who wants to be in charge and tries to manage the group - may not work on his or her own problems.
The person in a group who receives little or no attention -- he or she may be afraid to participate or other in the group may actually ignore him or her.
used by social services, mental health agencies, and universities, these groups provide education and skill building for growth and prevention, management, and remediation of problems.
four stages of group development include. Stage 1 - Initial Stage - orientation and exploration, Stage 2 - Transition Stage - dealing with resistance Stage 3 - Working Stage - cohesion and productivity Stage 4 - Final Stage - cosolidation and termination. Members must beleive that change is possible. Individuals learn that others have the same bad thoughts and feelings. Deveolpment of techniques (social skills), model behaviors, and learn one must take ultimate responsibility for the way he/she lives their life no matter how much guidance and support is given by others. Small Group Process/Stages: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning.
Existential therapy is a process of searching for the value and meaning in life.
What is existential therapy?
Attention is given to clients' immediate ongoing experience with the aim of helping them develop a greater presence in their quest for meaning and purpose.
What is attention given to in Existential Therapy?
The therapist's basic task is to help clients recognize that they do not have to remain passive victims of their circumstances but instead can consciously become architects of their lives.
What is the therapist's basic task for Existential Therapy?
Viktor Frankl, Rollo May, James Bugental, and Irvin Yalom.
Who are 4 key figures in existential therapy?
Frued and Adler
Who were Viktor Frankl and Rollo May influenced by?
The capacity for self-awareness, the tension between freedom and responsibility, the creation of an identity and establishing meaningful relationships, the search for meaning, accepting anxiety as a condition of living, and the awareness of death and nonbeing.
What are the 6 basic dimensions of the human condition?
The greater our awareness, the greater our possibilities for freedom.
What is the relationship between awareness and freedom?
Awareness is realizing that: -we are finite; time is limited, we have the potential/the choice to act or not to act, meaning is not automatic; we must seek it, we are subject to loneliness, meaninglessness, emptiness, guilt, and isolation.
What are the 4 key points of Awareness?
Existential guilt is being aware of having evaded a commitment, or having chose not to choose. It is the guilt experienced from not living authentically.
What is existential guilt?
Identity is the courage to be. We must trust ourseves to search within and find our own answers. Our greatest fear is that we will discover that there is no core, no self.
What is the idea of "identity" in existential therapy? What is our greatest fear?
Relatedness: humans crave ties with others and with nature.
What is "relatedness" in existential therapy?
At their best, our relationships are based on our desire for fulfillment, not our deprivation. Relationships that spring from our sense of deprivation are clinging, parasitic, and symbiotic.
What must relationships be based on to be healthy?
Meaning: like pleasure, meaning must be pursued obliquely. Finding meaning in life is a by-product of a commitment to creating, loving, and working.
What is the Search for Meaning?
The will to meaning is our primary striving. Life is not meaningful in itself; the individual must create and discover meaning.
What is "the will to meaning"?
The person-to-person relationship is key and the relationship demands that therapists be in contact with their own phenomenological world
What's important about the therapy journey taken by therapist and client (in existential therapy)?
respect and faith in the client's potential to cope and sharing reactions with genuine concern and empathy
What is the core of the therapeutic relatioship in existential therapy?
existential and phenomenological - it is grounded in the client's "here and now"
What type of therapy is Gestalt Therapy?
For clients to gain awareness of what they are experiencing and doing NOW.
What is the initial goal of Gestalt Therapy? For clients to gain awareness of...
GT promotes direct EXPERIENCING rather than the abstractness of TALKING ABOUT situations. Ex: Rather than TALK about a chldhood trauma, the client is encouraged to BECOME the hurt child.
How does Gestalt Therapy help clients gain awareness of what they are experiencing and doing NOW?
The present, the now and has not yet arrived
in Gestalt, the "power is in the..." and nothing exists except the... and the past is gone and the future...
lost and they may focus on past mistakes or engage in endless resolutions and plans for the future.
For many people, the power of the present is...
unexpressed and associated with distinct memories and fantasies and feelings not fully expressed linger in the background and interfere with effective contact
GT believes that feelings about the past are...
Preoccupation, compulsive behavior, wariness, oppressive energy, and self-defeating behavior.
What is the result of feelings of the past being left unexpressed?
Contact is interacting with nature and with other people without losing one's individuality.
What is CONTACT?
Resistance to contact is the defense we develop to prevent us from experiencing the present fully.
What is RESISTANCE TO CONTACT?
Introjection (tendency to uncritically accept others' beliefs and standards without assimilating them to make them congruent with who we are), Projection (reverse of introjection; we disown certain aspects of ourselves and assign them to the environment), Retroflection (doing to ourselves what we would like to do to others. ex. Aggression), Deflection (process of distraction so that it is difficult to maintain a sustained sense of contact), Confluence (a blurring of the differentiation between the self and the environment)
What are the five major channels of resistance?
They are used to elicit emotion, produce action, or achieve a specific goal and also used to allow client to experience emotions in the here and now
What are the experiments in Gestalt Therapy used for?
So that they can feel comfortable suggesting them, so that they can understand what the client is experiencing, and so that they can accurately judge when an experiment is appropriate for a particular client.
Why is it important for therapists to personally experience the power of Gestalt experiments before they try them on their clients?
A relationship must be established so that clients will feel trusting enough to participate. Therapists should ask clients if they are willing to try an experiment and also tell clients that the can stop when they choose to--the power is with the client.
Why/how must clients be prepared for Gestalt Experiments?
internal dialogue exercise, making the rounds (group), rehearsal exercise, reversal technique, exaggeration, staying with the feeling
What are the various types of Gestalt Experiments?
Who developed Person-Centered Therapy and the humanistic movement in psychotherapy?
his family life and background
What in Rogers's life impacted the development of the theory?
Non-judgemental listening and acceptence
What are the 2 core themes of the theory of person-centered therapy if clients are to change?
he applied it by training policymakers, leaders, and groups in conflict. He was nominated for a Nobel Peace prize.
how did Rogers apply person centered therapy to world peace later in his professional career?
PCT challenges the assumption that the "counselor knows best"
What does Person-Centered Therapy challenge about assumptions of the counselor?
PCT challenges the validity of advice, suggestion, persuasion, teaching, diagnosis, and interpretation
What does PCT challenge the validity of?
PCT challenges the belief that clients cannot understand and respove their own problems without direct help.
What does PCT challenge about assumptions of the client?
persons. PCT challenges the focus on problems over persons.
What does PCT focus on, problems or persons?
given a particular therapeutic climate, individuals will choose for themselves a growth producing and psychologically healthy direction for their lives.
What does PCT assume given a particular therapeutic climate? (main point of PCT)
Therapy as a journey shared by two fallible people, the person's innate striving for self-actualization, the personal characteristics of the therapist and the quality of the therapeutic relationship, the counselor's creation of a permissive "growth promoting climate", people are capable of self-directed growth if involved in a therapeutic relationship,
PCT emphasizes these 5 things:
congruence (genuineness or realness), unconditional positive regard (acceptance and caring but not approval of all behavior, accurate empathic understanding (an ability to deeply grasp the client's subjective world -- helper attitudes are more important than knowledge)
What 3 things make up a growth promoting climate in PCT?
1. Two persona are in psychological contact, 2. The client is experiencing incongruency, 3. The therapist is congruent/integrated in the relationship, 4. The therapist experiences unconditional positive regard/real caring for the client, 5. The therapist experiences empathy for the client's internal frame of reference and endeavors to communicate this to the client, 6. The communication to the client is, to a minimal degree, achieved
What are the 6 conditions that are necessary and sufficient for personality changes to occur in PCT?
The therapist...focuses on the QUALITY of the therapeutic relationship, Serves as a MODEL of a human being struggling toward greater realness, Is GENUINE, integrated, and authentic, without a false front, Can OPENLY EXPRESS feelings and attitudes that are present in the relationship with the client.
What are the 4 things that are important for the therapist in Person-Cenetered Therapy?
Independence and integration of the individual
What does the person-centered approach aim toward a greater degree of?
the growth process
What does PCT assist clients in?
...a climate conducive to helping the individual becom a fully functioning person.
The underlying goal of the PCT approach is to provide...
masks or the facades that clients are wearing
What does PCT help remove?
an openness to experience, a trust in themselves, an internal source of evaluation, a willingness to keep on growing
Rogers states that once the masks are removed, clients can become increasingly more actualized by (4 things):
That they have the same underlying problem
What do reality therapists believe about most clients?
They are either involved in a present unsatisfying relationship or lack what could even be called a relationship
What are most clients' problems when they come to reality therapy?
their inability to connect, get close to others, or to have a satisfying or successful relationship with at least one of the significant people in their lives
What are clients problems usually caused by?
That clients choose their behaviors as a way to deal with the frustration caused by an unsatisfying relationship
What do therapists recognize about clients' behaviors?
What is the emphasis in reality therapy?
To keep therapy focused on the present
What is the therapist's function in Reality Therapy?
We often mistakenly choose misery in our best attempt to meet our needs
Why do we often mistakenly choose misery?
when we meet our needs without keeping others from meeting their needs
When do we act responsibly?
meeting one or more of our basic human needs
What is all internally motivated behavior geared towards
Belonging, Power, Freedom, Survival (Physiological needs)
What are the 5 basic needs, according to reality therapy?
A control system to get us what we want....and to continually monitor our feelings to determine how well we are doing in our lifelong effort to satisfy these needs.
What does our brain function as?
Choice theory states that all we ever do from birth to death is behave and with rare exceptions, everything we do is chosen.
What does choice theory state?
WDEP: W - Wants (what do you want to be and do? -your picture album), D - Doing and Direction (what are you doing? Where do you want to go?), E - Evaluation (does your present behavior have a reasonable chance of getting you what you want?), P - Planning (SAMIC)
What are the procedures that lead to change?
S - Simple (Easy to understand, specific and concrete), A - Attainable (Within the capacities and motivation of the client), M - Measurable (Are the changes observable and helpful?), I - Immediate and Involved (What can be done today? What can you do?), C - Controlled (Can you do this by yourself or will you be dependent on others?)
What are the rules for planning for change? (SAMIC)
DOING (active behaviors), THINKING (thoughts, self-statements), FEELINGS (anger, joy, pain, anxiety), PHYSIOLOGY (bodily reactions)
What comprises total behavior?
a set of clinical procedures relying on experimental findings of psychological research.
What is behavior therapy?
principles f learning that are systematically applied and Treatment goals are specific and measurable.
What is behavior therapy based on?
specifically it is used to help people change maladaptive behaviors to adaptive behaviors and client's current problems
What does behavior therapy focus on?
skills of self-management
What does behavior therapy teach clients?
to identify specific goals at the outset of the therapeutic process
What is the hallmark of behavior therapy?
The client determines what behavior will be changed but the therapist determines how this behavior can be best modified and an active and directive role
What kind of role do behavior therapists assume?
Focus on awareness of moment to moment experiencing and the belief that people are responsible for their own behaivor and their active participation in here and now. "AH HA" moments. Chief figure is Fritz Perls
A process of searching for the value and meaning of life. The individual must find the "will for life" People have freedom to find meaning in what they do and what they experience including the spiritual beliefs and therefore responsible. Chief figures Viktor Frankl and Rollo May
Gestalt Therapy Techniques
1. Dream Work - Clients present dreams 2. Empty Chair - Clients talk to and focus is an empty chair 3. Confrontation - Counselors point out behaviors 4. Making the Rounds - used in group responses by each member 5. I take responsibility - client makes statement and .....6. Exaggeration - overly expressing movements or gestures to make meaning apparent
The underlying problem of all clients is the same: they are either involved in a present unsatisfying relationship or lack what could even be called a relationship. Primary need is to be love, belong, and feel worthwhile "WDEP" W= wants and needs; D= direction and doing; E= evaluation; and P = planning and commitment. Chief figures is William Glasser and Robert Wubbolding
Based on the belief that all behavior is learned. Goals of therapy are to eliminate maladaptive behavior while learning adaptive behavior. Stresses current behavior and measurable treatment goals. the behaviorists theorized that human activity was based on a learning model depending upon trial and error. Behavior that produced a pleasurable or useful result was retained and all other behavior was ignored and abandoned over time. Clarify behavior, target behavior, goals of therapy, implement change, evaluate, follow-up assessemnt. Chief figures are Skinner, Bandura, Lazarus, and Wolpe.
links a stimulus with a response
Receiving something desirable as a consequence of a given behavior ( getting a hug for cleaning up your room)
withdrawal or termination of an unpleasant stimulus as a result of performing a desired behavior ( removing the punishment after it is completed. No longer being grounded and the bedroom is clean)
Focus on interaction, communication, early (in life) decisions , and the ability of each person to move these early decisions. Life Scripts - eache person makes one by the age of five based on interpretations of external events. 'I'm ok, you're OK, and I'm not OK and you're not OK Chief figure is Eric Berne
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
Stresses thinking, judging, deciding, analyzing, and doing; helping people realize that they can live more rational and productive lives, assisting people in changing self-defeating thoughts and behaviors, and encouraging clients to be more tolerant of themselves and others. Belief that thoughts influence feelings and behaivor. If a person changes a way of thinking, then feelings and behaviors will be modified as a result 1. A - Activating event 2. B - Belief about A 3. C - Consequence (emotinal reaction to B) Focus on dispelling irrational beliefs through confrontation and re-education Recommended for clients with mental impairments. Chief figure is Albert Ellis.
Family Therapy / Transgenerational Family Therapies
Families and other natural systems respond in organized pattern behaviors. Goal is to help individuals differentiate from their family's emotional togetherness. Chief figure is Murray Bowen
Experiential Family Therapy/ Brief Faimly Therapy
stresses the importance of congruent communication both between others and within self. If individuals are able to become more in touch with the messages within themselves, they are then able to communicate more congruently with others. Focus on pwer games in family and solving problems using creative strategic interventions designed to bypass resistance. Chief figures are Virginia Satir and Carl Whittakerm Kyuge; Luige Boscolo, Gianfranco Cecchia
Family Systems Theory
Individuals are best understood within the context of relationships and through assessing the interactions within the entire family. Neither the individual nor the family are to "blame" . Genograms (family diagrams) are used to explore the family's process and rules. Chief figures a0 Alfred Adler (Adlerian family therapy) b. Murray Bowen (Multigenerational family therapy) c. Virginia Satir (Human validation process model) d. Carl Whitaker (Experiential.symbolic family therapy) e. Salvador Minuchin (Structural family therapy)
Genograms (family diagrams)
Are used to explore the family's process and rules. May include birth order and family birth dates, cultural and ethnic origins, religious affiliations, socioeconomic status, type of contact among family members, as well as proximity of family members.
four stages of group development include. Stage 1 - Initial Stage - orientation and exploration, Stage 2 - Transition Stage - dealing with resistance Stage 3 - Working Stage - cohesion and productivity Stage 4 - Final Stage - cosolidation and termination. Members must beleive that change is possible. Individuals learn that others have the same bad thoughts and feelings. Deveolpment of techniques (social skills), model behaviors, and learn one must take ultimate responsibility for the way he/she lives their life no matter how much guidance and support is given by others. Small Group Process/Stages: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning.
Feminist therapists emphasize that societal gender-role expecations profoundly influence a person's identity form the moment of birth and become deeply ingrained in adult personality. Children learn society's view of gender and apply it to themselves. Cultural feminist believe opprssion stems from society's devaluation of women's strengths. Radical feminist focus on oppression of wome that is embedded in partriarchy and seek to change society thorug activism. Feminists challenge all forms of oppression through insight, intorspection, or self-awareness to free women (and men) of roles that have prohibited them from realizing their potential.
The Basic Philosophy of Psychanalytic Therapy
Human beings are basically determined by psychic energy and by early experiences. Unconscious motives and conflicts are central in present behavior. Irrationa forces are strong; the person is driven by sexual and agressive impulses. Early development is of critical importance because later personality problems have their roots in repressed childhood conflicts.
The Basic Philosophy of Adlierian Therapy
Humans are motivated by soical interest, by striving toward goals, and by dealing with the tasks of life. Emphasis is on the individual's positive capacities to live in society cooperatively. People have the capacity to interpret, influence, and create events. Each person at an early age creates a unique style of life, which tends to remain relatively constant throughout life.
The Basic Philosophy of Existential Therapy
The central focus is on the nature of the human condition, which includes a capacity for self-awareness, freedom of choice to decide one's fate. responsibility, anxiedty, the search for a unique meaning in a meaningless world, being alone and being in relation with others, and facing the reality of death.
The Basic Philosophy of Person-Centered Therapy
The view of humans is positive; we have an inclination toward becoming fully functioning. In the context of the therapeutic relationship, the client experiences feelings that were previously denied to awareness. The client actualizes potential and moves toward increased awareness, spontaneity, trust in self, and inner-directedness.
The Basic Philosophy of Gestalt Therapy
The person strives for wholeness and integration of thinking, feeling, and behaving. The view is antideterministic in that the person is viewed as having the capacity to recognize how earlier influences are related to present difficulties. As an experiential approach, it is grounded in the here and now and emphasizes personal choice and responbility
The Basic Philosophy of Reality Therapy
Based on choice theory, this approach assumes that we are by nature social creatures and we need quality relationships to be happy. Psychological problemsare the result of our resisting the control by others or of our attempt to control others. Choice theory is an explanaion of human nature and how to best achieve good relationships.
The Basic Philosophy of Behavior Therapy
Behavior is the product of learning. We are both the product and the producer of the environment. No set of unifying assumptions about behavior can incorporate all the existing procedures in the behavioral field.
The Basic Philosophy of Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Individuals tend to incorporae faulty thinking, which leads to emotional and behavioral disturbances. Cognitions are the major determinants of how we feel and act. Therapy is primarily oriented toward cognition and behavior, and it stresses the role of thinking, deciding, questioning, doing, and redeciding. This isa psychoeducational model, which emphasizes therapy as a learning process, including acquiring and practicing new skills, learning new ways of thinking, and acquiring more effective ways of coping with problems.
The Basic Philosophy of Feminist Therapy
Feminists criticize many traditional theories to the degree that they are based on gender-biased concepts and practices of being: androcentric, gendercentric, ethnocentric, heterosexist, and intrapsychic. The constructsof feminist therapy include being gender-free, flexible, interactionist, and life-span-0riented.
The Basic Philosophy of Family Systems Therapy
The family is viewed from an interactive and systemic perspecitve. Clients are connected to a living systeml a change in one part of the systme will result in a change in other parts. The family provides the context for understanding how individuals function in relationship to others and how they behave. Treatment is best focused on the family unit. An individual's dysfunctional behavior grows out of the interactional unit of the family and out of larger systems as well.
Psychoanalytic Therapy - Key Concepts
Normal personality development is basedon successful resolution and integration of psychosexual stages of development. Faulty personality development is the result of inadequate resolution of some specific stage. Id, ego, and superego constitute the basis of personality structure. Anxiety is a result of repression of basic conflicts. Unconscious processes are centrally related to current behavior.
Adlerian Therapy - Key Concepts
It stresses the unity of personality, the need to view people from their subjective perspecive, and the importance of life goals that give direction to behavior. People are motivated by social interest and by finding goals to give life meaning. Other key concepts are striving for significance and superiority, developeing aunique lifestyle, andunderstanding the family constellation. Therapy is a matter of providing encouragement and assisting clients in changing their cognitive perspective.
Existential Therapy - Key Concepts
It is an experiential therapy. Essentially an approach to counseling rather than a firm theoretical model, it stresses core human conditions. Normally, personality development is based on th euniqueness of each individual. Sense of self develops from infancy. Self-determination and a tendency toward growth are central ideas. Focus is on th present and on what one is becoming; that is, the approach has a future orientation. It stresses self-awareness before action.
Person-Centered Therapy - Key Concepts
The client has the potential to become aware of problems and the means toreslove them. Faith is placed in the client's capacity for self-direction. Mental health is a congruence of ideal self and real self. Maladjustment is the result of a discrepancy between what one wants to be and what one is. Focus is on the present moment and on experiencing and expressing feelings
Gestalt Therapy - Key Concepts
Emphasis is on the "what" and "how" of experiencing in the here and now to help clients accept their polarities. Key concepts include holism, figure-formation process, awareness, unfinished business and avoidance, contact, and energy.
Reality Therapy - Key Concepts
The basic focus is on what clients are doing and how to get them to evaluate whether their present actions are working for them. People create their feelingsby the choices they make and by what they do. The approach rejects the medical model, the notion of transference, the unconsicious, and dwelling on one's past.
Behavior Therapy - Key Concepts
Focus is on overt behavior, precision in specifying goals of treatment, development of specific treatment plans, and objective evaluation of therapy outcomes. Therapy is based on the principles of learning theory. Normal behavior is learned through reinforcement and initation. Abnormal behavior is the result of faulty learning. This approach stresses present behavior.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy - Key Concepts
Although psychological problems may be rooted in childhood, they are perpetuated through reindoctrination in the now. A person's belieft system is the primary cause of disorders. Internal dialogue plasy a central role in one's behavior. Clients focus on examining faulty assumptions and misconceptions and on replacing these with effective beliefs.
Feminist Therapy - Key Concepts
Core priniciples that form the foundation for practice of feminist therapy are the personal is political, the counseling relationship is egalitarian, women's experiences are honored, definitions of distress and mental illness are reformulated, emphasis on gender equality, and commitment to confronting oppression on any grounds.
Family Systems Therapy - Key Concepts
Focus is on communication patterns with a family, both verbal and nonverbal. Problems in relationships are likely to be passed on form generation to generation. Symptoms are viewed as ways of communicating with the aim of controlling other family members. Key concepts vary depending on specific orientation but include differentiation, triangles, power coalitions, family-of-origin dynamics, functional versus dysfunctional interaction patterns, family rules governing communication, and dealing with here-and-now interactions. The present is more important thatn exploring past experiences.
Goals of Psychoanalytic Therapy
To make the unconscious conscious. To reconstruct the basic personality. To assist clients in reliving earlier experience and working through repressed conflicts. To achieve intellectual awareness.
Goals of Adlerian Therapy
To challenge client's basic premises and life goals. To offer encouragement so individuals can develop socially useful goals. To develop the client's sense of belonging.
Goals of Existential Therapy
To help people see that they are free and become aware of their possibilities. To challenge them to recognize that they are responsible for events that they formerly thought were happening to them. To identify factors that block freedom.
Goals of Person-Centered Therapy
To provide a safe climate conducive to clients' self-exploration, so that they can recognize blocks to growth and can experience aspects of self that were formerly denied or distorted. To enable them to move toward openness, greater trust in self, willingness to be a process, and increased spontaneity and aliveness.
Goals of Gestalt Therapy
To assist clients in gaining awareness of moment-to-moment experiencing and to expand the capacity to make choices. Aim not to analysis but at integration.
Goal of Reality Therapy
To help people become more effective in meeting their needs. To enable clients to get reconnected with the people they have chosen to put into their quality worlds and teach clients choice theory.
Goal of Behavior Therapy
Generally, to elimiant maladaptive behaviors and learn more effective behaviors. To focus on factors influencing behavior and find what can be done about problematic behavior. Clients have an active role in setting tratment goals and evaluating how well these goals are being met.
Goal of Cognitive Behavior Therapy
To challenge clients to confront faulty beliefs with contradictory evidence that they gather and evaluate. Helping clients seek out their dogmatic beliefs and vigorously minimize them. To become aware of automatic thoughts and to change them.
Goal of Feminist Therapy
To bring about transformation both in the individual client and in society. For individual clients the goal is to assist them in recognizing, claiming, and using their personal power to free themselves from the limitations of gender role socialization. To confront all forms of institutional policies that discriminate on the basis of gender.
Goal of Family Systems Therapy
Most approaches are aimed at helping family members gain awareness of patterns of relationships that are not working well and create new ways of interacting to relieve their distress. Some approaches focus on resloving the specific problem that brings the family to therapy.
Techniques of Psychoanalytic Therapy
The key techniques are interpretation, dream analysis, free association, analysis of resistance, and analysis of transference. All designed to help clients gain access to their unconscious conflicts, which leads to insight and eventual assimilation of new material by the ego. Diagnosis and testing are often used. Questions are used to develop a case history.
Techniques of Adlerian Therapy
Pay more attention to the subjective experiences of clients than to using techniques. Some techniques include gathering life-history data (family constellation, early recollections, personal priorities) sharing interpretations with clients, offering encouragement, and assisting clients in searching for new possibilities.
Techniques of Existential Therapy
Few techniques flow from this approach, because it stresses understanding first and technique second. The therapist can borrow techniques from other approaches and incorporate them in an existential framework. Diagnosis, testing and external measurements are not deemed important. The approach can be very confrontive
Techniques of Person-Centered Therapy
Therapy is relationship centered not technique centered. Counselors use active listening, reflection of feeling, clarification, summarization, confrontation, direct or open ended questions and "being there" for the client. This model does not include diagnostic testing, interpretation, taking a case history, or questioning or probing for information. Counselors refrain from giving advice or solutions, moralizing, or making judgments.
Techniques of Gestalt Therapy
A wide range of exiperiments are designed to intensify experiencing and to integrate conflicting feelings. Experiments are co-created by therapist and client through I/Thou dialogue. Therapists have latitude to invent their own experiments. Formal diagnosis and testing are not a required part of therapy.
Techniques of Reality Therapy
An active, directive, and didactic therapy. Various techniques may be used to get clients to evaluate what they are presently doing to see if they are willing to change. If they decide that their present behavioris not effective, they develop a specific plan for change and make a commitment to follow through.
Techniques of Behavior Therapy
The main techniques are systematic desensitization, relaxation methods, flooding, eye movement and desensitization reprocessing, reinforcement techniques, modeling, cognitive restructuring, assertion and soical skills training, self management programs, behavioral rehearsal, coaching, and various multimodal therapy techniques. Diagnosis or assessment is done at the outset to determine a treatment plan. Questions are used, such as "what" "how" and "when" but not "why". Contracts and homework assignments are also typically used.
Techniques of Cognitive Behavior Therapy
An active, directive, time-limited, present-centered, structured therapy. Some techniques include engaging in Socratic dialogue, debating irrational beliefs, carrying out homework assignments, gathering data on assumptions one has made, keeping a record of activities, forming alternative interpretations, learning new coping skills, changing one's language and thinking patterns, role playing, imagery, and confronting faulty beliefs.
Techniques of Feminist Therapy
Practitioners tent to employ consciousness raising techniques aimed at helping clients recognize the impact of gender-role socialization on their lives. Other techniques frequently used include gender-role analysis and intervention, power analysis and intervention, bibliotherapy, journal writing, therapist self-disclosure, assertiveness training, reframing and relabeling, cognitive restructuring, identifying and challendging untested beliefs, role playing, psychodramatic methods, group work and social action.
Techniques of Family Systems Therapy
There is a diversity of techniques, depending on the particular theoretical orientation. Interventions may target behavior change, perceptual change, or both. Techniques include using genograms, teaching, asking questions, family scuppting, joining the family, tracking sequences, issuing directives, anchoring, use of countertransference, family mapping, refraining, paradoxical interventions, restructuring, enactments, and setting boundaries. Techniques may be experiential, cognitive, or behavioral in nature. Most are designed to bring about change in a short time.
preventing painfull or dangerous thoughts from entering consciousness, feelings, thoughts, and memories are pushed down and stored in the unconscious as recall may be painful.
is taking the opposite belief because the true belief causes anxiety, unconsciously exhibiting overly nice behavior to conceal hostile feelings
another name for suppression, is to argue against the anxiety by denying that the anxiety exists, deal with anxiety by closing his/her eyes
asking your partner if he is mad at you, when you are mad at him, placing unacceptable behavior in oneself onto another.
discharging or transferring pent-up feelings, usually of hostility, on objects less dangerous than those that initially aroused the emotions, being angry at the boss and therefore coming home and kicking the dog
an attempt to provide reasonable explanations for questionable behaviors to appear logical, rational, or valid, used to react to guilt, claiming no remorse over the promotion you did not receive in order to conceal your disappointment.
gratifying frustrated sexual desires in substitute non-sexual activities and socially acceptable or creative activities. An athlete may unconsciously choose his/her profession to release anger, positive form of displacement.
returning to a previous stage of development, reverting to a less-mature state, a teenager whose parents are contemplating divorce starts wetting the bed.
or substitution to attempt to make up for some feeling of inadequacy by excelling, covering up weaknesses by emphasizing desirable trait or making up for frustration in one area by overgratification in another, a person with total deafness becoming a master painter.
Increasing feelings of worth (attitudes, values, standards, characteristics) by identifying with person or institution of illustrious standing, usually exercised with others of power and status, a high school drop-out joining a gang.
incorporates the attitudes of the parents and assumes those are his/her own, incorporate external values and standards into the ego. Person will assume responsibility for events outside of their control and blame oneself such as failed marriage or loss of a ballgame, an abused child becoming an abuser.
(daydreaming-escape, anticipation of the future) gratifying frustrated desires in imginary achievements
Relationship based on mutual respect and identifying, exploring, and disclosing mistaken goals and faulty assumptions. This is followed by a reeducation of the client toward a useful side of life. The main aim of therapy is to develop the client's sense of belonging and to assist in the adoption of behaviors and processes characterized by community feeling and social interest.
doing to oneself what one would like to do to someone else.
the attention the counselor pays to the client during a session, includes listening to the client and both verbal and nonverbal interaction. In task-facilitative attending behavior the counselor's attention is on the client. In distractive attending behavior the counselor's attention is on her or her own concerns.
the ability to recognize, perceive, and understand the emotions of another.
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Techniques
Sessions involve teaching and confrontation - techniques include homework assignments and bibliotherapy.
Transaction Analysis Techniques
Counselor acts as teacher - techniques include contracts for change, interrogation, confrontation, and illustration.
Behavioral (& Cognitive Behavioral) Therapy Techniques
Counselor is the expert, teaching and directing - techniques include positive and negative reinforcement, environment planning, desensitization, implosion, flooding, and stress inoculation.
Developed by Donald Meichenbaum as part of his "Self-Instructional Therapy". It has three phases: 1. Educational: in which the problem is identified and the client is given information about what to expect, 2. Rehearsal, in which the client practices the stressful event or behavior while using relaxation techniques 3. Implementation: in which the client uses the new skills to deal with the stressful situation.
in Transactional Analysis a set of behaviors that originate from a childhood script
Collecting Trading Stamps
in Transactional Analysis, the saving up of enduring, non-genuine feelings, then "trading" them for a script milestone such as a drinking binge or an anger outburst.
after establishing a relationship with the client, the counselor acts as teacher and model - techniques promote responsibility, working in the present, and stress freedom without blame.
Exploration of the unconscious through such techniques as free association, and the analysis and interpretation of dreams.
The counselor exhibits empathy and support - techniques include modeling and education with homework and goal-setting assignments
Counselor exhibits acceptance and empathy - techniques include open-ended questions and active/passive listening
Emphasis is on free will and personal responsibility for choices - techniques include the use of literature, modeling, and sharing of experiences - anxiety is used as a motivator.
The exposure of the client to the actual anxiety stimulus in conjunction with response prevention. Care is necessary to insure that overexposure does not increase anxiety.
A role-playing strategy in which a client acts out a behavior he wants to change or acquire. Can be quite useful in assertiveness training.
Fixed role therapy
A treatment method created by George Kelly in which the client is instructed to read a script at least three times a day, then act, speak and think like the script's character.
A method for decreasing anxiety by exposing the client to an imaginary anxiety stimulus. The method is risky because overexposure can actually increase anxiety.
The application of an unpleasant stimulus in an effort to reduce or eliminate an unwanted behavior.
A type of behavioral therapy to help overcome anxiety and phobias. The client is taught relaxation techniques, and then uses those techniques to react to and overcome situations in a hierarchy of fears.
Umwelt, Mitwelt, & Eigenwelt
in Existential philosophy the three components of the conscious experience of being alive - is biological, is social, and is psychological.
the counselor rephrases what the client has said.
the counselor sums up or reviews what has happened in a session or in the course of therapy.
Is associated with punishment?
loss of objectivity
According to Caplan, the most common reason for a request for consultation is
According to this theory, individuals many times act in inappropriate ways to get the love they need, to feel they are loving others, and to feel they have self-worth
Mandating continuing education, Indicating minimum proficiency, Protecting the public
Certification serves the purpose of------- Certification serves to signify to the public that an individual has attained a minimum level of knowledge, education and experience. This intended thereby to protect the public as much as possible, from incompetent practitioners. Certification indicates to the public a minimum level of proficiency in the field and mandates that a practitioner is continuing to upgrade his/her education so as to stay current in new information and ideas. It has nothing to do with allowing a therapist to practice.
Person-Centered (Carl Roger)
reflection vs. advice, Conditions for Growth:Empathy, Genuineness / Congruence, Unconditional (+) regard, -> self actualization
Created Gestalt Therapy, empty chair technique (individual can work on opposing feeling); underdog; topdog
Aaron Beck (Cognitive-Behavioral Therapist)
Is a Cognitive therapy for depression that aims to replace negative or irrational thoughts with more reasonable, adaptive ones
Joseph Wolpe (systematic desensitization) steps
Came up with relaxation training, construction-anxiety hierarchy, desensitization in imagination, in vivo desensitization.
therapeutic cognitive restructuring (REBT)
irrational thinking - core of emotional disturbance, cognitive dispution-refuting irrational ideas and replacing them with rational ones.
Affecting agent, Belief system, Consequence, Disputing the irrational belief, Effective new philosophy.
Reality Theory (William Glassier)
like a friend asking what is wrong, client and counselor be persistent and never give up past... not a primary focus, successful behaviors little use of diagnostic labels.
Person-Centered Therapy (Carl Rogers)
Therapy where the individual is good and moves toward growth and self-actualization
Transactional Analysis (Eric Berne)
Messages learned about self in childhood determine whether person is good or bad, though intervention can change this script
Gestalt (Fertz Perls)
People are not bad or good. People have the capcity to govern life effectively as "whole". People are part of their environment and must be viewed as such.
REBT (Albert Ellis)
People have a cultural / biological propensity to think in a disturbed manner but can be taught to use their capacity to react differently
Reality Therapy (William Glasser)
Individuals strive to meet basic psychological needs and the need to be worthwile to self and others. Brain as control system tries to meet needs.
psychological positions in the family
One of the reasons for the life style assessment phase of Adlerian Therapy is to determine the client's
In Person-Centered counseling, when the counselor accurately senses the client's feeling and personal meaning, the counselor is displaying
Non-directive. experiential, reflective, passive
Which of the following best describes the Person-Centered counselor?
When the Person-Centered counselor is fully oneself, spontaneous and role-free in all therapeutic relationships, the counselor is displaying
genuineness, and to provide a climate of safety and freedom
Main conditions for a psychological growth promoting climate in the Person-centered approach is and A basic goal of the Person-Centered approach is
Which of the following is a major concept of Person-Centered therapy?
a symbol of social bonding
In Jungian terms, transference is
The Person-Centered approach is a form of ________therapy.
to provide a climate of safety and freedom
A basic goal of the Person-Centered approach is and Which of the following techniques would be most emphasized in Person-Centered therapy?
actual, present behavior
The "here and now" orientation of Gestalt therapy refers to
In Gestalt therapy, situation that are unresolved and are forced into the client's background that continue to influence his/her present behavior are
bi-polar role play, unfinished business
Enactment is a strategy Gestaltists use with and The concept of figure-ground in Gestalt therapy can best be understood by which of the following?
From which major approach to psychotherapy were most other approaches developed or evolved?
Family constellation and family dynamics, early childhood memories, birth order, and past and present ecological factors are important data in ____theory.
A technique call "spitting in the soup" of the client would most likely be used by a therapist employing______theory.
For client who came from a culture that placed a great deal of emphasis upon spiritual aspects of living and problem-solving________therapy would probably be helpful.
The concepts of figure-ground, polarities, and contact are identified with _____therapy.
The principle of, "awareness as curative" is an essential tenet in _____therapy.
A counselor refuses to listen to a client's explanation as to why the client was unable to carry out plans made in their previous sessions. This counselor is most likely practicing
it is based on the scientific method
What clearly distinguishes behavior therapy for other approaches is
move toward greater self-realization
According to Jung, the aim of therapy is to help the client
the person is given unconditional positive regard, the therapist is non-directive
In Rogers' approach to therapy
the unique way we develop our own style of life
When Adler spoke of individuality, he referred to
In Adler's theory, an innate sense of kinship with humanity is called
Superiority and individual psychology
According to Adler, the ultimate goal in life is_________and Adler's theory of personality is called
striving to maintain balance and taking responsibility for one's actions
In Gestalt therapy, people are motivated by and Gestalt therapy involves
taking responsibility for one's actions
A major goal of reality therapy is
as the end result of a process of discouragement
How would the Adlerian therapist view the personal problems of clients?
it allows clients to relive their past in therapy
Analysis of transference is central to psychoanalysis because
To Jung, inherited personality building blocks of the unconscious are called
irrational thinking and behavior
RET view neurosis as the result of
a unitary way to approach peoples' problems
The multimodal orientation emphasizes
thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuiting
The four functions of Jungian consciousness are
universal patterns, and represented by religions
Jungian archetypes are
The Jungian concept of the "shadow" may best be compare to
For Jungian therapy, _____is the ultimate goal for the client.
The Center for Application of Psychological Type
One current measure of the popularity of Jungian psychology is
eliminating maladaptive learning and providing for more effective learning
The main goal of behavior therapy is
the principles of learning
Behavior therapy is grounded in
Bandura's social learning theory explains behavior as
____________ are concerned with the client's own self-discovery.
Of the defense mechanisms discussed in psychoanalytic therapy, ________, described a psychological stunting of growth where the person fails to move from one developmental stage to another. (Fear of leaving the old for the new.)
A person who exhibits behavior that clearly shows signs of reverting to less mature stages is likely to be using which ego defense?
Is most desirable since it adds to the client's understanding and awareness
The counselor's behavior does not completely convey an understanding of what has been communicated.
Social Influence core
This core focuses on: expertise, attractiveness and trustworthiness
Human relations core
This core focuses on: empathy, positive regard ( or respect) and genuineness
Reinforcement is repeated at timely intervals (eg, every 10 secs)
Reinforcement interval changes (such as reinforcement after 2 seconds, then after 7 seconds, then after 4 seconds and so on)
Reinforcement occurs at fixed response intervals (for example, giving reinforcement after every fifth response)
Reinforcement happens at a rate tied to the number of responses (the actual number of responses to each reinforcement may fluctuate like payments on a capped variable rate mortgage, but the ratio, on average, stays constant)
process of gathering data in order to make evaluative comparisons regarding different siutations
conditions of experimental research
1) treatment controlled via the experimenter, 2) random assignment, 3) attempts to eliminate all extraneous variables
researcher uses preexisting groups, so IV cant be altered (gender or ethnicity); you cant state that IV caused DV
ex-post facto study
"after the fact", meaning a correlational study or research in which preexisting groups were used; IV was administered before the research began
threats to internal validity
1) maturation of subjects (psychological and physical changes), 2) mortality (subjects withdrawing), 3) instruments used to measure the bx or trait, 4) statistical regression (high or low scores move toward mean if measure used again)
whether the DVs were truly influenced by the experimental IVs or whether other factors had an impact
whether the experimental research results can be generalized to larger populations (other people, settings, conditions)
statistical procedures that use the important or underlying factors in an attempt to summarize a lot of variables
nonparametric statistical measure that tests whether a distribution differs significantly from an expected theoretical distribution
interpreting the results in the simplist way, aka Occam's Razor, principle of economy, Lloyd Morgan's 1894 Cannon
suggests that experimenters interpret the results in the simpliest manner;
flaws in research
variables that confound or "flaw" the experiment, the only experimental variable should be
results have generalizability (external valid)
created by Likert in 1930s, scale helps improve overall degree of measurement; response categories example: strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree
Standard Errof of Measurement, tells the counselor what would most likely occur if the same individual took the same test again
reduces the general to specific
research goes from specific to generalization
assumption is that scores are normally distributed
curve is not normal distribution, ex: 1) Mann-Whitney U-test, 2) Wilcoxon signed-rank test, 3) Soloman and Kruskal-Wallis test
outlines a procedure; so other researchers can attempt to replicate an experimental procedure
implies that another researcher can repeat the experiment exactly as it was performed before
you take every nth person (an alternative to random sampling)
each individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected, selection is by chance, selection of one subject dosent affect the selection chance of another, eliminates researcher tendency to pick a biased sample
used when a special characteristic needs to be represented (race, gender, age, degree, etc); the stratification variable in your sample should mimic the population at large
type of stratified sampling, where a specific number of cases are necessary for each striatum
utilized when it is nearly impossible to find a list of the entire population, uses an existing sample or cluster of people or selects a portion of the overall sample; will not be as accurate as random sampling (often used to time and practical considerations), ex: instead of using population in US, use population in your hometown
when researcher selects subjects from a single socioeconomic group
when persons from 2+ SES groups are utlized
Educational Resources Information Center, bank of scholarly literature and resources, 1.2mil citations
reference of an article/book written by the actual person
quote a general counseling text that summarizes
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, statistics
switching the order in which stimuli are presented to a subject in a study, way to control order so it dosent have impact on outcome
Rosenthal/Experimenter effect, experimenter falls in love with his own hypothesis and experiment becomes self-fulfilling prophecy
multiple treatment interference
if a subject receives more than 1 treatment, it is often tough to discern which modality truely caused the improvements
ANCOVA or ANACOVA
analysis of covariance; parametric test; an extension of the ANOVA that controls the impact that one or more extraneous/unstudied variables (covariates) exert on the dependent variable
analysis of variance; parametric test; also a one-way analysis of variance, this test is used to determine whether 2 or more mean scores differ significantly from each other; examines a null hypothesis btw 2 or more grps
factorial analysis of variance
used to describe an ANOVA that is used to compare 2 or more IV; when 2 IVs are utilized, the term "two way ANOVA" is used
used to describe an ANOVA when a researcher examines more than one dependent variable
pearson product-moment correlation (r)
used with interval and ratio data, examines the direction + magnitude of 2 variables; correlation that describes a relationship btw 2 variables
phi-coefficient/tetrachoric correlation coefficient
used to assess correlation when both variables are dichotomous
point bi-serial/bi-serial correlation
used when 1 variable is continuous and other dichotomous (ex: IQ with sex)
scheffe's S test/N-K/Tukeys/Duncans
used when researcher discovers a significant F ratio in an ANOVA to test the differences btw specific group means or combinations of grp means; post hoc tests
used to find whether 2 means or correlation coeff differ significantly from each other; whether a single sample or correlation coeff differs sig from a population mean
used to assess whether an obtained distribution is sig different than an expected or theoretical distribution
used as a non-parametic one-way ANOVA; statistic called "H"
used to test whether a significant difference is present btw 2 uncorrelated/unmatched means, allows the test to be used with 3 samples
Spearman Rank-Order Correlation (rho)
used in place of Pearson when parametric assumptions can be met (ordinal data are involved)
used to determine whether 2 correlated means are sig different (used in place of t test when parametric assumptions arent met)
Bayley Scales of Infant Development; test that evaluates children from 1mo to 42mo; measure responses to visual and auditory stimuli, manipulation, play with objects, and discrimination of sounds/shapes; comprised of Mental scale, Behavior Rating scale, Social-Emotional scale, and Adaptive Bx scale
Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration; consists of geometric shapes that the person reproduces; measures visual perception and handeye coord
Bender-Gestalt Test of Visual-Motor Integration; expressive test with no time limit consisting of 9 stimulus cards with geometric figures that the person copies; assess visual perception and perceptual motor integration
California Psychological Inventory; intended for well-adjusted indiv that focuses on assessment of personality characteristics that are important for social living and interaction, 12+, 434 test items, yields 20 scales of indiv diffs
Career Decision Scale; 19 item self reporting measure suitable for high school/college
Children's Apperception Test; downward extension of TAT utilized with kids age 3-10, 10 picture cards, used to reveal dominant drives, emo, sentiments, personality char
Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence; lang-free measure of intelligence and reasoning; 50 abstract symbols, problem solving techniques presented, tasks inc with difficulty; 6+, takes 1hr
assist high school and adult clients prepare for 2-4yr college, prof, grad schools, careers, employment; special version for middle school
Draw-A-Person Test; norm referenced projective/expressive test, person asked to draw human figures, nonverbal measure of intelligence or projective measure of personality, age 3-16
General Aptitude Test Battery; 12 tests for vocational counseling in schools and job placement settings, focuses on in-depth measurements of aptitude and skills, students grades 9-12 and adults
Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey; personality inventory used with normally functioning individuals age 16+, measures 10 traits, initially developed to asses Carl Jung's constructs of introversion and extroversion, most freq with college
human service workers
"ethical standards of human service professionals" from Nat Org for Human Services
"code of ethics" from American Psychoanalytic Assoc
"principles of medical ethics, with annotations for psychiatry" from Amer Psychiatric Assoc
"ethical standards of sociological practitoners" from Sociological Practice Assoc
NASW Code of Ethics, from Nat Assoc of Social Workers
"ethical standards for school counselors" from Amer School Counselor Assoc
"ethical principles of psychologists" from APA
marriage and family therapists
"AAMFT Code of ethics" from Amer Assoc for MFT
national certified counselors
NBCC Code of Ethics from National board for certified counselors
ACA Ethical Standards from ACA
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act; 1996 ensures privacy of the client's records and limits sharing this information
purpose of Title II of HIPAA
to protect counsumer health care information (PHI or protected health info)
how HIPPA works
HIPAA provides national standards for electronic health care transactions with administrative simplifications; if client signs Notification of Privacy Practices form then several providers can share records and info; 3rd party payers could view the client's complete record; also allows clients to view on records (counseling notes are now the exception); but prescription med monitoring, counseling session times, treatment modalities, freq of intervention, treatment plans, tests, diaganosis, prognosis, symptoms, progress are NEVER considered psychotherapy notes! (only impressions, analysis, conversations)
US dept of health and human services can inspect the complete record
Wide Range Achievement Test; used to measure reading, spelling, math skills; utilized for quick estimate of academic achievement, age 5-75, 15-30min
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence; comprised of verbal and nonverbal sacles to measure intellectual functioning of young children based on capacity to understand and cope with the world, age 2 to 7, 1.5hrs
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for CHildren; verbal and nonverbal scales: age 6-16; 50-70min
most popular adult intelligence test, comprised of verbal and nonverbal scales, based on capacity to understand and cope with world, 60-90min, age 16-89
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale; assess indiv personal and social sufficiency; measures adaptive bx from birth to 90
Thematic Apperception Test; projective test contains 30 picture cards (and one blank) indiv asked to make up emo, sentiments, complexes, conflicts; full test is 19 cards and one blank, 4_
Strong Interest Inventory, based on Holland, usually 16+, compares a person's interests with those of persons who have been in their occupation for at least 3 yrs and state they enjoy their work, 291 items, 35min
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
form L-M, best test for ferreting out kids in 99th percentile, higher ceiling, best for gifted
intended to assess intelligence and cog abilities, composed of 10 subtests which take approx 5min each to administer, suitable for indiv from 2-95
Slosson Intelligence Test (SIT-R3)
verbally administered measure of intelligence utilized to gain a quick estimate of intellectual ability, utlized age 4+, 10-20min
16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF)
187 item, normal adult personality measure admin to indiv age 16+, assesses personality on 5 global factors
popular software program based on resarch conducted by ETS to help with career self asses and info, provides realistic view of finest career options for high school, college, adult clients
Self Directed Search, self admin career interest assessment to address needs of clients, self scoring, 35-45min
Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank, projective method of evaluating personality, person asked to complete 40 sentences for which the first words are provided; assumed person reflects own wishes, desires, fears
Rorschach Inkblot Test
projective test, 10 cards, 5 gray and 5 colored, asked to describe what they see, age 3+
Portage Guide to Early Education Checklist
developmentally sequenced, criterion-referenced checklist used as a measure with infants, kids birth to 5yrs; measure cog, lang, self-help, motor, socialization areas
Piers-Harris Children's Self Concept Scale
80 item scale, self-descriptive, 15min, age 8-18, gives self-concept score
Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT)
measure level of educational achievement in the areas of basic skills and knowledge, no written responses, used kindergarten to adult
Otis-Lennon School Ability Test; group administered, use in grades K-12, results predict success in school, 60-75min
ONET computerized interest profiler
new interest inventory, 180 items to discern which occupations a client would like and find intereseting; uses RIASEC typology; self admin and self interp; 30min
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator; widely used measure of personality disposition and preferences created by Isabel Briggs Myers, 166 items, based on Jung's theory of perception and judgement; 4 bipolar scales used resulting in 16 personality types, 4 letter code; upper level elementary thru adult
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory; assess some major personality characteristics that affect personal and social adjustments; 567 items (physical conditions, moral attitudes, social attitudes, etc); indiv admin, 18+, separate test for adol, t/f questions
Leiter International Performance Scale; nonverbal measure of intelligence used with indiv age 2 to adult; used often to evaluate indiv who are deaf, nonverbal, non english speaking, culturally deprived, severe medical complications; 54 subtests inc in difficulty at each age level
Kuder Search with Person Match Interest Inventory
new version of KOIS, assumption that person will find satisfaction in an occupation where workers have similar interest patterns, examines about 140 occupations and college majors, 20min, admin via paper, computer, internet; 10th grade+
Kuder Career Inventory
100 triad inventory, respondent must choose btw 3 activities, 12min
Kinetic Family Drawing, supplement to DAP, asked to draw everyone in family doing an activity, projective measure of personality to assess perception of self and family
House-Tree-Person, projective/expressive drawing test provides examiner with info pertaining to intrapersonal, interpersonal, enviro adjustment of individual evaluated, used with kids and adol
Holtzman Inkblot Technique; 2 forms 45 inkblot cards, originally developed to imporve reliablity of Rorschach, age 5 thru adult
Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychology Battery, establish baseline of function against which to measure future functioning, 3 batteries (children 5-8, children 9-14, adults); minimum of 14 separate tests, scored on 26 variables
Explain the career development theory of John Crites
Crites formulated his theory of career counseling after reviewing and writing the major approaches to the subject. His theory is a comprehensive synthesis of those approaches plus some of his own ideas. He dealt with issues of diagnosis, the counseling process, and outcomes. His work reflects the influence of trait-and-factor and developmental career counseling. He believes that the diagnosis determines the outcome of the counseling. He identified three types of diagnosis: differential, which determines what the problem is; dynamic, which identifies the reasons for the problem; and decisional, which establishes how the problem is dealt with. he developed, used, and recommended that other counselors use the Career Maturity Inventory.
The main idea of constructivism is that each person builds his or her own reality. The counselor helps the clients to understand the meaning of their life stories and the life roles each plays,, as well as the relationship between those roles and their values and beliefs.
Fantasy, Tentative, Realistic
As developmentalists, Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, and Herma accepted the idea that occupational choice can be divided into three periods
up to the age of 11, during which period the child may use any occupation in play
age 11-17, during which time the child examines careers in light of interests and values and his or her own capabilities.
17-adulthood, when the person makes a choice. The third period is subdivided into three stages
during which the person limits vocational choices to personal interests and abilities
during which a definite choice is made.
during which the person is educated for his or her choice of vocation. This theory was based on a study of a small group of young men from the middle-class in the 1950s and rather ignored the fact that gender, race and social standing were important factors in occupation choice at that time.
Tiedeman and Miller-Tiedeman's decision-making model
Tiedeman & O'Hara saw career development as parallel to Erikson' psychosocial stages and believed that career decisions were made as ego related problems were solved. They believed that career decisions were related to other decisions one made about other areas of one's life and that each person can choose his or her career. They saw career decisions as a two-phase continuing process and identified the phases as anticipation/preoccupation, during which a person imagines himself working at a particular job and implementation/adjustment, when the person actually works at that job. Tiedeman and Miller-Tiedeman emphasized the key role an individual plays in making career decisions
John Krumboltz's Learning Theory of Career Counseling (LTCC)
(1) Genetic endowments and special abilities that could limit a person's occupational choices.
(2) Environmental conditions and events in a person's life such as education, activities, economic conditions and personal resources
(3) Instrumental and associative learning about careers including the reactions and reinforcement from others.
(4) Task approach skills which include problem-solving ability, working and thinking patterns, and emotions. he saw learning as a life-long process and thought a person's beliefs could be changed through career counseling. He also believed that chance events could influence a person's career development. In working with clients he made use of the Career Beliefs Inventory
Ann Roe's career development theory
this theory of career development was a needs approach in which genetics, childhood experiences, and the relationship with parents were contributing factors to the choice of a career. She believed that the parenting style would determine whether or not a person would be people-orientated
She also subscribed to Maslow's theory that careers are chosen to meet needs; a people-orientated person chooses a career that involves working with people while a non-people-orientated person will chose a career with less involvement with others.
Roe pioneered the use of a two-dimensional occupational classification using fields and levels. The eight occupational fields she identified are: service, business contact, organization or managerial, technology, outdoor, science, general cultural, and arts and entertainment. Technology, outdoor, and science are non0person orientated careers
She also identified six levels of occupational skill: high level professional and managerial or p&m1; regular level professional and managerial or p&m2; semi-professional and managerial or semi-professional and small business; skilled, semi-skilled; and unskilled.
Discuss the decision approach to career development
The decision approach to vocational guidance is a broader perspective than the trait-based approach. Proponents of this approach think that vocational education should be an integral part of all students' entire education. H.B. Gelatt identified two types of decisions: terminal or final decisions and investigatory decisions. A person makes investigatory decisions with added information until he or she reaches a terminal decision. Gelatt devised a model that illustrates the decision-making process and shows information divided into predictive, value, and decision systems.
life roles by Donald Super
Super identified eight life roles that describe the ways people spend time and energy. The child is the time spent relating to parents and lasts throughout the life of the parents. The student is time spent in education, starts in early childhood and may last into older adulthood. Leisurite is Super's coined word for time spent in leisure activities. The citizen is time spent volunteering or in other work for the community. The worker is the time one spends working for pay. The parent is time spent caring for a child; lasts throughout the child's dependent years and in many cases well beyond. The spouse is the time spent in a committed relationship. The homemaker is the time spent in maintaining a home -- housework, yard work, repairs, shopping, etc.
John Holland's modal personality types
Using an actuarial approach Holland developed a theory that the choice of career is an outgrowth of personality that is influenced by the stereotypes people hold of different types of employment. He identified six modal personal orientations that he believed all people have in varying degrees.
personality type is active and aggressive, prefers explicit tasks, and may not relate very well to others. Career choices would be mechanical or technical work
personality is intellectual, prefers creative activities, and may have poor social skills. Typical career choices would be in the sciences or the computer field
personalities are imaginative and expressive, with a preference for activities that are not rigidly ordered or systematic. Typical career choices would be something in the arts or some other creative field.
personality types enjoy interaction with others and imparting information and have little interest in tools or mechanical devices. Teaching or counseling would be typical careers for them
people are extroverted leaders who are willing to take chances and have little use for abstract thinking. Politics and business are possible careers.
personality types are practical with a dislike for unorganized or ambiguous activities. Possible careers include office work and accounting.
Donald Super's vocational development stages and vocational development tasks
Growth: birth to 14 or 15 - self-concept, attitudes, interests, and needs develop, child develops a general understanding of the world of work
15-24 - person explores choices through classes, work, and hobbies, makes tentative choice and develops related skills
25-44 - builds skills and stabilizes in a work situation
45-64 - adjustments are made to improve job situation.
65+ person prepares for retirement,, retires.
14-18 - develops and plans a possible occupational goal.
18-21 - chooses a specific vocation.
21-24 - completes training and enters the job market.
24-35 - works at a chosen career.
35+ - establishes self in career. According to Super these tasks can be repeated as a person adapts to changes in himself or herself or the work environment changes. They are also somewhat outdated since they were based on middle class white males with college educations during the 1950s and 1960s.
Super's Archway Model
delineates the changing diversity of life roles a person experiences over his or her life span and illustrates how biographical, psychological, and socioeconomic elements influence the development of a career. The name for the model came from the fact that it was modeled on the doorway of his favorite Cambridge college.
Life Career Rainbow
is a graphic illustration in which each colored band represents a life role and numbers around the outer edge indicate age. The amount of time a person typically spends in each role is indicated by dots of varying sizes within the bands. The Rainbow can be used to help a person find a balance of work and life that is suited to himself or herself.
Career Pattern Study
followed the vocational behavior of a group from the ninth grade to thirty years of age. The study revealed that a person who was mature and an achiever while in high school would likely be a successful young adult.
Explain how the hexagon relates to John Holland's theory
Holland's hexagon is a graphic illustration of the correlation between his six personality types and six occupational environments or categories that he called themes. The themes are positioned on the hexagon so that those with the most similarity are closest together and those with the most differences farther apart. A person's scores on the Vocational Preference Inventory and the Self-Directed Search determine which work environment is the best fit for his or her personality. Holland believed that most people are not clearly of a single personality type, but will have characteristics from two or three types.
process of assessing or estimating attributes; broad term; could include surveys, questionnaries, observations, interviews, etc
instrument whcih measures a given sample of behavior; important to inform clients of limitations of assessment; systematic method of measuring a sample of behavior
connoates that a number or score has been assigned to the person's attribute or performance
manner in which test items are presented
ex: format of essay test, relies mainly on scorer's opinion
if rather knows the test takers attributes, can affect scoring, esp on subjective test (ex: attractive client, one of same race)
rater's judgment plays little or no part in scoring process
NCE (national counselor exam)
objective test b/c scoring procedure is specific, multiple choice AND forced choice
free choice/free response
ex: short answer test, person taking the test can respond in any manner they chose to, can yield more information but take more time to score and increase subjectivity
recognition items, used to control the social desirability phenomenon (asserts that ppl put the answer he feels is socially acceptable), mutlple choice
indicates the percentage of individuals who answered each item correctly; the higher the number of ppl who answer a question correctly, the easier the item is (ex: a .5 difficulty index or difficulty value would suggest that 50% of those tested answered question correctly while 50% didnt)
dichotomous recognition items; presented with 2 choices; multipoint item if more than 2
normative test format
each item is independent of all other items, can be compared to others who have taken the test (ex: percentile rank)
compares traits within the same individual, they dont compare a person to other persons who took the instrument (ex: Kudar Occupational Interest Survey); points out highs and lows that exist within a single individual
percentile rank example
if individual has 60 percentile rank, then 60% of individuals who took the test scored 82 or less
intended to be fairly easy, difficulty is due to timed limitations, set up so nonone finishes
designed to evaluate the level of mastery without a time limit
really is a type of speed test, but a high percentage of test takers finish it and its usually more difficult and has time limti
measures maximum performance
measures typical performance