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Macronutrient

A nutrient that is essential for life in large quantities.

Micronutrient

A nutrient that is essential for life in small quantities or is only essential for some speices.

Residence Time

Time that a nutrient spends in any specific resivoir.

Flux/Rate of Transfer

The rate in which a nutrient goes in or out of a resivoir.

Limiting Factor

A factor, either too much or too little, of a nutrient that limits growth.

Evaporation

Water changing state from a liquid to a gas.

Condensation

Water changing from a gas to a liquid.

Precipitation

Water changing from a gas to a liquid or solid.

Respiration

The release of water from animals.

Run-off

Water moving down stream or down-slope, usually toward a larger source of water.

Percolation

Water seeping through the ground into the underground water table.

Consumption

Living things consuming water or substances that have water in them.

Transpiration

The release of excess water from plants.

CO2

Carbon Dioxide, gaseous

C6 H12 O6

Glucose, sloid, basis of all sugars

CH4

Methane or "Natural" Gas

CO3-2 and HCO3-1

Carbonate and Bicarbonate Ions

Photosynthesis

process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into food

Cellular Respiration

the process through which cells produce energy from carbohydrates

Assimilation/Biosynthesis

Eating

Lithification

The process in which rocks are formed from organic sediment.

Decompostition

The breakdown of organic materials, preformed by bacteria.

Combustion

The burning of any substance with oxygen as a reactant.

Uplifting/Weathering/Erosion

The physical breakdown of rocks via wind water etc.

PO4-3

Phosphate Ion, solid

Eutrophication

The excess in concentration of some nutrients, particularly phosphorous or nitrogen, which causes algae blooms and dead spots.

N2

Atmospheric Nitrogen gas.

NO3-1

Nitrate Ion

NO2-1

Nitrite Ion

NH3

Ammonia, gas

NH4+1

Ammonium Ion

N2O

Nitrous Oxide or Dinitrogen monoxide

Nitrogen Fixation

the process in which bacteria converts atmospheric nitrogen gas to ammonia

De-nitrification

the process in which nitrogen is returned to the atmosphere

Leeching

The removal of nutrients in soil, as water percolates through the soils the soils leech out the nutrients and bacterias.

Ammonification

The process in which bacteria convert organic waste to ammonia

Nitrification

the process in which ammonium is converted into nitrate ions

Igneous Rock

A type of rock that forms when molten rock hardens

Sedimentary Rock

A type of rock that forms when sediments are compacted and cemented together.

Metamorphic Rock

A type of rock that forms when an existing rock is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions

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