Anatomy Lab 1

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What is the term gross anatomy?

Gross anatomy, also called topographical anatomy, is the study of anatomy at the macroscopic level.

The term gross distinguishes it from other areas of anatomical study, including microscopic anatomy, which is studied on a microscopic scale, typically with a microscope.

Other branches of anatomy are histology, embryology and neuroanatomy.

Define axial (Surface Anatomy)

Of relating to head, neck and trunk

Axis of the body

Axialliary = Armpit

Define appendicular (Surface anatomy)

Relating to limbs and their attachments to the axis

Define acromial area

Shoulder

Define antebrachial

Pertaining to the forearm

Define antecubital

Pertaining to the anterior surface of the elbow

Brachial show where it is

Pertaining to the arm (upper portion of the appendage)

Buccal

Pertains to the cheek

Carpal

Pertaining to the wrist

Cervical

Pertaining to the neck region

Coxal

Pertaining to the hip

Shows the abdominal region

Crural

Pertaining to the Leg

Digital region

Pertaining to the fingers or toes

Femoral Area

Pertaining to the Thigh

Fibular (Peroneal)

Pertaining to the side of the leg

Purple in figure

Frontal

Pertaining to the forehead

Hallux

Pertaining to the great toe

Inguinal

Pertaining to the groin

Mammary

Pertaining to the breast

Mental

Pertaining to the chin

Nasal

Pertaining to the nose

Oral

Pertaining to the mouth

Orbital

Pertaining to the bony eye socket (orbit)

Palmar

Pertaining to the palm of the hand

Patellar

Pertaining to the anterior knee (kneecap) region

Pedal

Pertaining to the foot

Pelvic

Pertaining to the pelvis region

Pollex

Pertaining to the thumb

Pubic

Pertaining to the genital region

Sternal

Pertaining to the region of the breastbone

Tarsal

Pertaining to the ankle

Thoracic

Pertaining to the chest

Umbilical

Pertaining to the navel

Brachial

Pertaining to the arm

Calcaneal

Pertaining to the heel of the foot

Cephalic

Pertaining to the head

Dorsum

Pertaining to the back

Femoral

Pertaining to the thigh

Gluteal

Pertaining to the buttocks or rump

Lumbar

Pertaining to the area of the back between the ribs and hips; the loin

Manus

Pertaining to the hand

Occipital

Pertaining to the posterior aspects of the head or base of the skull

Olecranal

Pertaining to the posterior aspect of the elbow

Otic

Pertaining to the ear

Perineal

Pertaining to the region between the anus and external genitalia

Plantar

Pertaining to the sole of the foot

Popliteal

Pertaining to the back of the knee

Sacral

Pertaining to the region between the hips (overlying the sacrum)

Scapular

Pertaining to the scapula or shoulder blade area

Sural

Pertaining to the calf or posterior surface of the leg

Vertebral

Pertaining to the area of the spinal column

Body Orientation and Direction

Body Regions

Superior vs. Inferior

Give examples of a comparison of:
1. mouth and nose
2. liver and heart

Superior/inferior(above/below): These terms refer to placement of a structure along the long axis of the body.

Superior structures always appear above other structures, and inferior structures are always below other structures.

For example, the nose is superior to the mouth, and the abdomen is inferior to the chest.

Body Orientation and Direction

Body Regions

Anterior and Posterior

In humans the most anterior structures are those that are most forward—the face, chest, and abdomen.

Posterior structures are those toward the
backside of the body. For instance, the spine is posterior to the heart.

Body Orientation and Direction

Body Regions

Medial vs. Lateral

Medial - Toward the midline

Laterial - Away from midline or medial plane

Ex: The sternum (breastbone) is medial to the ribs; The ear is lateral to the nose

Body Orientation and Direction

Body Regions

Cephalic vs. Caudal

Cephalic - Toward the head

Caudal - Toward the tail

In humans this is interchangeable with superior and inferior

In bipeds, this is synonymous with anterior and posterior, respectively

Body Orientation and Direction

Body Regions

Dorsal vs. Ventral

Dorsal - Backside
Ventral - Bellyside

Comparative anatomy of animals, assuming animal is standing.

Dorsum = "Back" (Animals back or backside)
Ventral = "Belly" (Animals belly side)

Humans - Ventral and Dorsal is interchangeable with anterior and posterior

Animals - Ventral and Dorsal is interchangeable with inferior and superior

Body Orientation and Direction

Body Regions

Proximal vs. Distal

Proximal - Nearer to trunk
Distal - Away from trunk

Located on body limbs as a reference

Fingers are distal to elbow
Knee is proximal to toes

(Always in relation to something else)

Body Orientation and Direction

Body Regions

Superficial vs. Deep

Superficial (External)
Deep (Internal)

Locate in reference to their relative closeness to the body surface

Skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles
Lungs are deep to the rib cage

Sections and Planes

Sagittal

What are other sagittal planes called?

AKA Midsagittal AKA Median

A plane that runs longitudinally and divides the body into right and lefts parts

All planes that are not median are referred to as parasagittal planes

Sections and Planes

Frontal (coronal)

Frontal = Coronal

Divides the body into anterior (Front) and posterior (Back) parts

Sections and Planes

Transverse

What are these cuts commonly referred as?

A plane that runs horizontally, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts.

Sections are commonly called "Cross sections" - CT scan

Cranial Cavity

Brain enclosed with rigid skull

Continuous with spinal cavity

Spinal Cavity

Delicate spinal cord is contained within and protected by bony vertebral column

Continuous with cranial

Thoracic Cavity

Separated from rest of cavities by a dome shaped diaphragm

Afforded some measure of protection by bony rib cage

Pelvic Cavity

Regon that is partially enclosed by a bony pelvis and contains reproductive organs, bladder and rectum

Tipped away from Abdominal Cavity from the perpendicular

Show all the abdominal quadrants

LU quadrant

Stomach
Spleen
Left lobe of liver
Body of pancreas
Left kidney and adrenal gland
Splenic flexure of colon
Parts of transverse and descending colon

LL quadrant

Important organs of the left lower quadrant include:

part of descending colon
sigmoid colon
left ovary
Fallopian tube
left uterine tube

RU quadrant

Important organs

Liver
Gall bladder with biliary tree
Duodenum
Head of pancreas

Hepatic flexure of colon

RL quandrant

Cecum
Appendix
Ascending Colon
Right ovary and Fallopian tube
Right ureter

Umbilical Region

Centermost region

Includes the Umbilicus

Epigastric Region

Overlies most of the stomach

Hypogastric region

Encompasses the pubic area

Iliac Region

Inguinal area

Lateral to the hypogastric region and overlying the superior parts of the hip bones

Lumbar Regions

Between the ribs and flaring portions of hip bones

Lateral to umbilical region

Hypochondriac Region

Flanking the epigastric region laterally and overlying the lower ribs.

Peritoneum region

Serosa lining of the abdominal cavity and its organs

Pleura (Lung)

Serosa lining Enclosing the lungs is the pleura

Pericardium

Serosa lining enclosing the heart

What qualifies as the integumentary system?

Skin
Hair
Sweat glands

What qualifies as the skeletal system?

Bones
Cartilage
Ligaments (Bone-Bone Connection)

What qualifies as the muscular system?

Skeletal Muscle
Tendons (Muscle-Bone Connection)

What qualifies as the nervous system?

Brain
Spinal Cord
Nerves

What qualifies as the endocrine system?

Pituitary gland
Thyroid Gland
Pancreas
Adrenal Gland
Gonads (Ovaries / Testes)

What qualifies as the cardiovascular system?

Heart
Blood Vessels
Blood

What qualifies as the lymphatic system / Immune System?

Spleen
Thymus
Lymphatic Vessels
Lymph Nodes
Tonsils

What qualifies as the Respiratory System?

Nasal Cavity
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchii
Lungs

What qualifies as the Digestive System?

Teeth
Tongue
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
Liver
Gallbladder
Pancreas

What qualifies as the Urinary System?

Kidneys
Ureters
Urinary Bladder
Urethra

What qualifies as the Reproductive System?

Testes
Prostate Gland
Penis
Scrotum
Ovaries
Uterine tubes
Uterus
Vagina
Mammary Glands

Show Prophase

Show Metaphase

Show Anaphase

Show Telophase

Show Cytokinesis

What is a section in reference to anatomy?

Section = Cut

What type of shoes need to be worn in lab?

Closed toed shoes

If you have a tank top in lab, what must be worn?

Lab coat over tank tops and shorts that do not reach the knee

Is water allowed in lab? What about food or drink?

Nothing allowed
No food
No water
No drink

Where do you deposit broken glass?

Notify TA
Sweep up
Place in "Broken Glass Disposal"

What are the rules for using and discarding of scalpel blades?

NEVER force the blade onto the handle

Dispose in a sharps container

What is the rule for dissection instruments?

Thoroughly cleaned after each use

Spray and wipe clean with disinfectant spray

Where is tissue waste disposed into?

Only place in "Tissue waste disposal"

NO trash
NO gloves
NO broken glass
NO scalpel blades

What is the rule for the electrical cord on microscopes?

Always unwrap cord completely before plugging in microscope

Ensure no jewelry comes into contact with this

Unplug by pulling the plug not by tugging on cord

Where does liquid waste get disposed into?

Hazardous Waste Container

Where do you look for an unknown chemical in lab?

MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) for unknown chemicals

If you have a chemical spill, what is the length of time in which you should wash the area?

15 minutes

Are pets and minors allowed in the lab?

No

Before leaving lab what should always be done?

Wash hands and area around you

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