List three methods used for thickening soups.
starches, beans, roux
What two parts make up a roux and what are there ratios?
A fat and flour. You use 1 part flour to 1 part fat
What is the purpose of a roux?
to thicken the soup
What must you do to the roux to make it work?
you have to cook it
When should dried herbs be added to a soup?
at the beginning or in the middle, depending on the cook time.
When should fresh herbs be added to a soup?
at the end, because they are already hydrated
Give three examples of herbs we used to make soups in our labs
parlsey, thyme, and rosemary
How many ounces are in one cup?
1 cup = 8 ounces
What is evaporation and how does it affect the cooking of soups and stocks?
evaporation is when a liquid turns into a vapor. this can affect the soup, by making it thicker
Which is larger a tablespoon or a teaspoon?
What is the size of a small dice?
1/4 x 1/4 x 1/4
What is the name of the knife cut for making small dice?
What does the term SWEAT mean? How is this different from SAUTE?
Sweating is cooking without browning it, Saute is carmelizing it (browning)
What does TT mean?
What does to "adjust the seasonings" mean and which two seasonings does this normally refer?
to add more of something ;salt and pepper
What do you do to a soup if it is too thick?
add broth or water, adjust seasoning
When and how should hot soups be served?
Hot soups should be served a la minute, especially broths and consommés
When and how should cold soups be served?
Cold soups should be chilled and served into chilled cups or bowls
What does "a la minute" mean?
a style of cooking where an item, or particularly its accompanying sauce, is prepared to order, rather than being prepped in advance and held for service.
Who is Escoffier? What did he say about STOCKS?
Escoffier is a french chef who created kitchen brigade and he says without it nothing can be done
Define a STOCK
A flavorful liquid made by simmering in a liquid bones, vegetables and aromatics
What are the 4 components of a stock?
Color, clarity, flavor/aroma, & body.
What is MIREPOIX? What are the three components and their ratios of the vegetables used in a mirepoix?
A combination of vegetables used to flavor stocks.
2 parts onion, 1 part celery, 1 part carrots.
What is a BOUQUET GARNI? How is this different from a SACHET D'ESPICES?
It's a stock made from fresh herbs & spices. The only difference is the flavoring.
What five ingredients are in BOUQUET GARNI or in a SACHET D'ESPICES?
Thyme, Parsley, Peppercorns, Cloves, Bay Leaf
What does DEPOUILLAGE mean and why do we do this?
Depouillage means to skim the surface of a cooking liquid. We do this to remove all the excess impurities as they collect at one side of the pot
What does DEGRASS mean?
To remove fat from the stock when it's cold
What is a REMOUILLAGE?
a weak stock made from a second wash of solids after draining of the original stock.
Name 3 liquids can be used in making a stock?
water, wine, and vegetable juice
What are three uses of a stock?
soups , sauces, and stews
What does CARAMELIZATION mean?
to brown meat, vegetables or fruits to create a flavorful crust
What is gelatin?
product of collagen dissolving with heat and moisture gives mouthfeel and flavor prolongation
Describe a stock pot?
taller than it is wide with handles
List three basic or simple stocks?
chicken, vegetable, and fish
What is used to make a shellfish stock?
made from lobster, shrimp, or crayfish shells
What is a FUMET?
a reduced and seasoned fish, meat, or vegetable stock
What is OIGNON BRULE and what is it used for?
its a browned onion, and its used to flavor soups.
When should you add a BOUQUET GARNI or a SACHET D'ESPICES to a STOCK?
near the end
After we have cooked the stock, how long do we have to cool the stock to 70 degrees F? How long do we have to cool it to 41 degrees F or lower?
-Cool to 70º within 2 hours
-Move to cooler and cool to 41º within 4 hours
When should we DEGRASSER a stock?
List three ways we can cool a stock?
-Strain the stock into a cooling container (non aluminum metal)
-Place the container in an ice water bath
-Stir the stock with an ice paddle
What is the definition of a SOUP?
Soups are a liquid food from meat, poultry, fish and/or vegetables with stock as the base
What is the most common liquid to make a soup?
List the aromatics used in soup making?
What are two classifications of soup and give two examples for each classification?
Clear soups: Broths/Bouillon, Consommes
Thick soups: Purees, Cream
What is a CONSOMME? Describe how it is made?
A very clear soup. It is made from stock with no fat, alone or garnished with herbs, cooked meats, or noodles.
What ingredient in the soup does the term CHOWDER refer?
What is a BISQUE? How does it differ from other cream soups?
Stock with seafoods and rice. Others cream soups have thickeners in them.
List three REGIONAL SOUPS?
Large variety, Usually have thickened broth with main flavor ingredient staying in soup, Hearty Vegetable - lots of vegetables and possibly meat and pasta, Minestrone - hearty vegetable from Italy, Borscht - beet soup from Russia
Manhattan Clam Chowder - United States