The Bible alone was the source of God's word
What was the overall message that Martin Luther conveyed through his theses?
Who ignited the Protestant Reformation?
What religion did John Calvin spur?
What religious idea did John Calvin present?
"An intense, identifiable personal experience in which God revealed to the elect their heavenly destiny."
Those that experienced conversion were expected to show their holy behavior by being...
King Henry VIII seceded from the Roman Catholic church, forming the Church of England. This inspired religious reformers to undertake a purification of English Christianity.
How was the Protestant Reformation brought about?
Everyone was allowed to enter Church, meaning that "visible saints" had to be seated next to the damned.
Most separatists wanted to break away from the Church of England for this reason.
King James I
Who began persecution of separatists?
He felt that if his subjects could defy him spiritually, then it was only a matter of time that they would defy him politically
Why did the king begin persecuting separatists?
Where did the most famous group of persecuted separatists flee to?
The separatists that migrated to Holland became increasingly unhappy with their location. Why?
They negotiated a charter with the Virginia Company of London to live under their jurisdiction
Unhappy with Holland, what action did the separatists take?
What was the name of the ship that the separatists sailed on?
Plymouth, which was not under the jurisdiction of the Virginia Company
The Mayflower missed its destination in America. Where did they go?
Captain Miles Standish
Who was captain of the Mayflower?
What important document did the Pilgrims sign?
The Pilgrims were to form a government in the New World that would be ruled by the majority
What did the Mayflower Compact decree?
At first, the Pilgrims suffered many losses during their first winter in the New World. They were able to succeed though based on their prominent leader. Name one of the Pilgrims' multilingual leaders that chosen as governor thirty times.
It merged with the Massachusetts Bay Colony
What would finally become of Plymouth? How did it become integrated into the royal colonies?
Puritans seeking reform within the Church of England
Who was largely responsible for requesting the charter for the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
True or False: The puritans that lobbied for a charter to the Massachusetts Bay Colony took the charter with them in an act of defiance.
What served as the hub of the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
It brought more settlers
How did the "Great Migration" affect the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
Who served as governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony for about 19 years?
He feared democracy, and instead set up a colony that largely ruled through the church
What was Winthrop's stance on democracy?
Clergymen could not hold government office
In what way did the Massachusetts Bay Colony abide to modern-day laws of separation between Church and State?
Who defended the government's duty to enforce religious rules?
Male property holders
In the town governments of the Bay Colony, who could vote?
What assembly represented the Bay Colony?
Who could vote for members of the General Court?
Men that belonged to the Congregational Church
How did Winthrop define "freemen"?
How was the Congregational Church funded
What colony came to be dubbed the "Blue Law State"?
Sumptuary laws that repressed the people
What laws were printed on blue paper in Connecticut?
What claim (considered heresy) did Anne Hutchinson promote?
God has already predetermined the fate of man, so the saved do not need to obey the law of either God or man in order to remain in salvation
What is antinomianism?
What was Anne's fate in her trials?
Where did Anne find refuge?
That the Congregational Church should make a clean break with the Church of England; The Bay Colony's charter was illegal because it expropriated land from the Indians; denied the authority of civil government to regulate religious behavior
What three beliefs put Roger Williams on trial?
Banishment, and later, exile
What was Roger Williams fate from his trials?
He fled to the Rhode Island area with the help of some natives, and purchased Providence from the local Indian tribe
How did Roger Williams elude the Bay Colony's plans to exile him?
Religious tolerance for all
What was Roger Williams' biggest promotion in Rhode Island?
It obtained a royal charter
How did Rhode Island become legalized?
The Fundamental Orders
What important document did the settlers of the Connecticut River colony draft?
A democratic government ruled by the "substantial" citizens
What did the Fundamental Orders decree?
Puritans seeking closer integration between church and state than the Bay Colony
Who founded New Haven?
The citizens of New Haven wanted a charter, but fell out of favor of the king after harboring two judges that sentenced the king's father to death. The king forced New Haven to merge with Connecticut Valley
What was the fate of New Haven, and why?
It was purchased by Massachusetts Bay
How did Maine become integrated into the New World colonies?
Under a strained interpretation of the Massachusetts charter, New Hampshire was absorbed by the Bay Colony
How was New Hampshire integrated into the New World colonies?
He made it a separate colony
What action did the King take in regards to New Hampshire?
Peaceful, since an epidemic had just broke out among the Indians, resulting in their loss of numbers
What were relations like between the Indians and the Pilgrism, and why?
The Wampanoag Indians
What local tribe originally befriended the Pilgrims?
Who was the Wampanoag chieftain during their peaceful relations with the Pilgrims?
They set fire to Pequot wigwams, then shot the fleeing survivors
As the English colonists continued to push inland, they spurred conflict with the Pequot Indians. Describe how the English defeated the Pequots in the Pequot War.
Convert them to Christianity
What did the English try to do to the Indians that survived the Pequot War?
Metacom (AKA King Philip)
The Indians formed an intertribal alliance to attack the English. The alliance was founded and controlled by this chieftain.
King Philip's War
What war did Metacom bring about?
The English brutally defeated the Indians, disbanding them to the point that they no longer posed a threat
What was the result of King Philip's War?
New England Confederation
What marked the first milestone for colonial unity?
Each colony received 2 votes
How were votes distributed among the colonies of the New England Confederation?
They were upset that they only received 2 votes since they were the largest and most populated colony
What was the Bay Colony's reaction to the voting policy of the New England Confederation?
After __________ gains power, he learns that Boston has defied his orders and takes drastic measures against the Bay Colony in revenge.
Granted a sea-to-sea charter for Connecticut; revoked the Bay Colony's charter
In what two ways did Charles II find his revenge against the Bay Colony?
He issued Rhode Island a new charter that punished religious tolerance
How did Charles II react to Rhode Island's religious tolerance?
Dominion of New England
James II disbanded the New England Confederation in support for this organization instead.
Sir Edmund Andros
Who led the Dominion of New England?
English Navigation Laws
The Dominion of New England was formed partially to enforce this set of rules.
The colonies could trade only to countries ruled by the English crown
What did the English Navigation Laws decree?
Stopped town meetings; Restricted courts, school, and the press; Revoked land titles
What three oppressive actions did Andros take against the people?
When the colonists hear of the Glorious Revolution that dethroned James II in England
How is the Dominion of New England overthrown?
It regained its charter
What happened to Massachusetts after the Glorious Revolution?
All male property holders
Under the new charter for Massachusetts, who was eligible to vote?
Where did the Netherlands hold a colonial empire?
Henry Hudson; He disregarded orders to sail NE, instead attempting to get to the East Indies by finding a passage through the New World
Who sailed for the Dutch, and founded claimed American colonies for them? Why was he in America?
Hudson Bay Area
Where was the colony of New Netherland planted?
For a quick profit
For what reason was New Netherland founded?
They purchased it from the Indians for pennies per acre
How did New Netherland acquire Manhattan Island?
Harshly, in the interests of stockholders
Since New Netherland was only interested in making a quick profit, how was it run?
Religious toleration, free speech, and democracy
What freedoms did the colonists of New Amsterdam lack?
It attracted many languages
In what way did New Amsterdam foreshadow New York City?
An area of land granted by the Netherlands government to a promoter that agreed to settle fifty people on it.
What was a patroon?
The Swedes trespassed on Dutch preserves
How was the colony of New Sweden planted?
They staged a military expedition
How did the Dutch respond to the colony of New Sweden?
Who led the Dutch military expedition to extinguish New Sweden?
It was originally a wall meant as protection against the Indians
How does Wall Street get its name?
Charless II granted control of the area to the Duke of York. An English squadron then approached the Dutch, prepared to fight, and the Dutch were forced to surrender
How does England gain control over New Netherland?
The Quakers refused to pay taxes for the Church of England
What led to conflict between the Quakers and the government of England?
The King was in debt to William Penn's father
How was William Penn able to get a charter for Pennsylvania?
What colony was close to Pennsylvania, and essentially under its control until the American Revolution?
Quakers were in control of West Jersey and East Jersey until the King combined them into a royal colony
How did New Jersey come about?
They despised it
What was the Quakers' stance on black slavery?
Freedom for all religions
What kind of religious tolerance did the Quakers establish in Pennsylvania?
Peaceful, until other white settlers became to stir up trouble
What relations existed between the Quakers and the Indians?
The church of Pennsylvania was not supported by taxes
What difference existed between the church in Pennsylvania and the Church of England?