AP Human Geo Unit 1: Nature and Perspectives of Geography

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Agricultural/Crude Density

The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture

Arithmic Density

The total number of people divided by the amount of land area

Contagious Diffusion

The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.

Concentration

The spread of something over a given area

Cultural Ecology

Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.

Connections

Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space.

Cartography

The science or art of map making.

Culture

The body of customary belifs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct tradition.

Cultural Landscape

The natural landscape as modified by human activities and bearing the imprint of a culture group or society; the built envioronment.

Diffusion

The spread or movement of a phenomenon over spaceor through time.

Density

The freguency of which something exists within a given unit of an area.

Distance Decay

The declining intensity of any activity,process or function with the increasing distance from its point of origin.

Distrabution

The arraingement of plants and animals in a particular region(s) and or district(s).

Equator

An imaginary east-west line that encircles the globe halfway between the North and South Poles.

Expansion Diffusion

The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another snowballing process.

Enviornmental Determinism

The view that the physical enviornment, particularily climate, controls human action, molds human behavior and conditions cultural development.

Functional Regions

A region defined by the particular set of activites or onteractions that occur within it.

Formal Regions

An area in which everyone shares one or more common distinctive characteristic.

Globalization

The worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas.

Place

A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic.

Region

An area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical characteristics.

Scale

The relationship between the proportion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole.

Space

A physical gap or interval between two objects.

Projection

The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map.

Mercator and Robinson Projection

Mercator: A cylindrical map presented by Gerardus Mercator, a flemish geographer and cartographer.
Robinson: A map specifically created by Arthur H. Robinson to readily show the world at once.

Geographic Information System

A computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data.

Remote Sensing

The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.

Global Positioning System

A navigational system involving satellites and computers that can determine the latitude and longitude of a receiver on Earth by computing the time difference for signals from different satellites to reach the receiver.

Toponym

The name given to a portion of Earth's surface.

Site

The physical characteristics of a place.

Situation

The location of a place relative to other places.

Longitude/Meridians

Imaginary lines that go around the earth over the poles, mark east to west, prime meridian is the 0 degree longitude.

Prime Meridians

Is an imaginary line running from the North Pole to the South Pole. The prime meridian is at zero degrees longitude (the equator going the other way).

International Date Line

An imaginary line on the surface of the earth following (approximately) the 180th meridian.

Time Zone

24 different time zones, one time zone = 15 degrees of longitude.

Latitude/Parallels

Imaginary lines parallel to the Equator measure north to south, the equator is the 0 degree latitude.

Functional/Nodal Region

An area organized around a node or focal point.

Vernacular/Perceptual Region

An area that people believe to exist as part of their cultural identity.

Sequent Occupance

The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape.

Possibilism

The physical environment may limit human actions,people just have to adjust.

Physiological/Nutritional Density

The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.

Space-Time Compression

The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems

Hearth

The area where an idea or cultural trait originates.

Relocation Diffusion

The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.

Hierarchical Diffusion

The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places.

Stimulus Diffusion

The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.

Uneven Development

The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy.

Spatial Perspective

Observing variations in geographic phenomena across space.

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