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pure substance

matter that always has exactly the same composition; an element or compound

element

a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances

atom

the smallest particle of an element

compound

a substance that is made from 2 or more simpler substances and can be broken down into those simpler substances

heterogeneous mixture

a type of mixture in which the parts of the mixture are noticeably different from one another

homogeneous mixture

a type of mixture in which the substances are so evenly distributed that it is difficult to distinguish one substance in the mixture from another

solution

a mixture that forms when substances dissolve and form a homogeneous mixture

suspension

a heterogeneous mixture that separates into layers over time

colloid

a mixture that contains some particles that are intermediate in size between the small particles in a solution and the larger particles in a suspension

physical property

any characteristic of a material that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the substances in the material

viscosity

the tendancy of a liquid to keep from flowing; resistance to flowing

conductivity

a materials ability to allow heat or electric charges to flow

malleability

the ability of a solid to be hammered without shattering

melting point

the temperature at which a substance changes from solid to liquid

boiling point

the temperature at which a substance boils; the temperature vapor pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure

filtration

a process that separates materials based on the size of their particles

distillation

a process that separates the substances in a solution based on their boiling points

physical change

a change that occurs when some properties of a material change, but the substances in the material stay the same

chemical property

any property that produces a change in the composition of matter

flammability

a materials ability to burn in the presence of oxygen

reactivity

the property that describes how readily a substance combines chemically with other substances

chemical change

change that occurs when a substance reacts and forms one or more new substances

precipitate

a solid that forms and separates from a liquid mixture

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