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Lord Baltimore

founded Maryland- prominent English Catholic family- wanted refuge for Catholics- awarded estates to Catholic relatives- helped pass Act of Toleration- helped protect Catholics from protestant immigrants

James Oglethorpe

Found George- military leader- interested in prison reform- repelled Spanish attacks from Georgia- used his own money to support Georgia

royal charter

king gives person land in a different place

slave codes

defined the slaves' legal status and how their masters could treat them- colony slave codes were based on Barbados slave code which denied fundamental rights to slaves

primogeniture

law in Englad that said only the eldest sons could inherit land estates and the younger sons had to find their own way- spread through out the colonies

indentured servants

migrants who bound themselves to a colonial employer for four to seven years in order to migrate to the Americas

house of Burgesses

assembly established in Virginia- Fitzhughs, Lees, and Washingtons dominated it- led the way for all colonies to have central committees

Treaty of Tordesillas

divided the New World between Portugal and Spain

Act of Toleration

guaranteed toleration to Christians in Maryland but gave the death penalty to Jews and atheists- brought Catholic immigrants to Maryland

Virginia Company

joint stock company that received a charter for land in the New World and made a charter that guaranteed overseas settlers the same rights of Englishmen that they would have enjoyed if they stayed in england- founded Jamestown- authorized House of Burgesses

Anne Hutchinson

carried to logical extremes the Puritan doctrine of predestination- claimed holy life didn't bring salvation- banished and moved to New York where she was killed by Indians

Roger Williams

threatened Puritan leaders- extreme Separatist- wanted Clergymen to break with the Church of England and challenged the legality of Bay Colony's charter- denied authority of civil government to regulate religious behavior- banished

William Penn

English Quaker- founded Pennsylvanica- unappreciated by colonists- arrested three times for treason and thrown into debtor's prison and had a paralytic stroke

Massachusetts Bay Colony

vessel carried 1000 immigrants to this land and started a large scaled colony- first governor was John Winthrop

Navigation Laws

series of laws passed to regulate colonial shipping- only English ships could trade in English and colonial ports

Puritans

English Protestant reformers who sought to purify the Church of England of Catholic rituals and creeds

Quakers

remarkable group of dissenters who arose in England- offensive to authorities- refused to support Church of England with taxes

Mayflower Compact

agreement to form a crude government and to submit the will of the majority under the regulations agreed upon-agreed to form the government at the colony instead of Virginia

Ben Franklin

wrote Poor Richard's Almanac- convinced France to support Americas- signed the Treaty of Paris

1st Great Awakening

ignited religions and started in Massachusetts by Jonathon Edwards- more American churches opened- first mass movement by American people- brought a sense of unity

Bacon's Rebellion

less indentured slaves and more slavery

Head right system

used by Virginia and Maryland- encouraged importation of servant workers

Proclamation of 1763

prohibited settlement beyond the Appalachians- made to work out the INdian problem fairly and prevent an uprising- Americans moved west in protest

boycott

voluntarily abstaining from using, buying, or dealing with a person organization, or country to show protest- Americans boycotted tea

royal veto

right of the king to veto legislation

mercenaries

making money at the expense of ethics- soldier who takes part in a conflict/war whose country is not involved in the conflict

Washington

founding father- architect of American Government- from Virginia- brilliant military leader

Lord North

King George III's Prime Minister- government of Lord North persuaded Parliament to repeal Townshend revenue duties- said it was all over at Yorktown even though it was not

George III

King during revolutionary war- showed his weaknesses by repealing all of his Acts and giving into the colonies

Sam Adams

antifederalist- American statesman, political philosopher, founding father, steered colonists towards revolution

Benedict Arnold

led an American force and surprised and captured British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point- left the American cause to go to the Brits- viewed as a traitor

Burgoyne

British officer- involved in the plan to capture Hudson River- his troops surrendered at Saratoga

General Nathanael Greene

Quaker- reared tactician- used strategy of delay- standing and then retreating he exhausted his foe- cleared Georgia and SC of British troops- became one of Washington's best officers

Cornwallis

led the British army that was trapped at Yorktown- surrendered at yorktown- british officer

J.P. Jones

officer- Scotsman- led naval force- succeeded in destroying British merchant shipping and carried the war into the water

Thomas Jefferson

author of Declaration of INdependence- member of the Philadelphia congress- lawyer

Marquis de LaFayette

French officer made a major general in the colonial army- helped gain support from France in the war

Patrick Henry

part of the first continental congress- radical passionate speaker- famous for "give me liberty or give me death!" in front of Virginia Assembly- Resolutions against the stamp act helped start the war

Thomas Paine

two influential pamphlets at the start of the Revolution- founding father

Common Sense

written by Thomas Paine- urged colonists to declare independence and establish a republican government

George Rogers Clark

soldier from Virginia and the highest ranking American military officer on the northwestern frontier during the revolutionary war- captured Kaskaskia and Vincennes

Battle of Quebec

First major defeat of the war for the Americans but came with costs to their army

Battle of Bunker Hill

first battle of the war- old style fighting- colonists retreat because of lack of amo- England won

Battle of Saratoga

fought in upper NY- French believed colonists might win - Benedict Arnold led the battle

Battle of Trenton

Washington won these two New Jersey victories and he was back at his military best

Battle of Yorktown

last American battle- americans trapped them with Washington and America gains freedom

Hessians

German troops hired by George III to aid the colonial insurrection- Americans resented use of paid foreign fighters

Tories/ Loyalists

Bristish North American colonists who remained loyal subjects of the British crown during the Revolution

Treaty of Paris 1763

signed to end the French and Indian war- stopped Indians from playing European powers against each other

Treaty of Paris 1783

signed in Paris by America and England giving America freedom- stretched American borders- colonies could fish off of Newfindland- colonies agreed to support loyalists

1st continental congress

convention of delegates from twelve British colonies that met early in the American Revolution for a response to the Intolerable Acts

2nd continental congress

convention of delegates from 13 colonies in Philadelphia after warfare had begun- adopted the Declaration of Independence

Boston Massacre

Clash between Bostonian protestors and British redcoats who fired on the jeering crowd kill or wounding 11

mercantilism

export more than you import as a mother country

salutary neglect

unofficial policy of relaxed royal control over colonial trade and weak enforcement of Navigation Laws- lasted until end of French and INdian War

Sons of Liberty

patriotic groups that played a central role in agitating against the Stamp Act and enforcing non-importation agreements

Boston Tea Party

protest against the British East India Company's newly acquired monopoly on the tea trade- colonists dumped tea into Boston harbor and Parliament put the Intolerable acts on them

Albany Congress

intercolonial congress summoned by the British government to foster greater colonial unity and assure Iroquois support in the escalating war against the french

olive branch petition

continental congress adopted this because the colonies didnt want war and the Americans professed loyalty to the crown and begged the king to not go to war and King George and Parliament refused

Sugar Act

increased tax on foreign sugar imported form the west indies; 1st law passed for raising taxes in the colonies for the crown

Quatering Act

required colonies to provide food and quarters for British troops

Stamp Act

mandated the use of stamped paper or the affixing of stamps, certifying payment of tax, was placed on all paper, money was used to support the British army- passed without colonial legislature

Declaratory Act

reaffirmed Parliament's right to bind the colonies in all cases whatsoever- basically told the colonies England was in charge- showed weakness on England's part

Townshend Acts

import tax on glass, white lead, paper, paint and tea- indirect customs tax payable at American ports- paid for royal governors and judges in America- brought the Boston Massacre

Quebec Act

England gave French Catholics land in order to control the colonies from expanding west

intolerable acts

designed to punish Boston and Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party and most of the rights of colonial Massachusetts were taken away: town meetings etc

Albany Plan

proposed by Ben Franklin at the Albany Congress in order to form a union amongst the colonies and it was vetoed by the English- helped write the articles of confederation

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