Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought (raw materials into goods into GOLD).
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop.
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
House of Burgesses
the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.
Founding of Georgia
created in 1733 by the English crown (Named after King George II) to serve as a buffer between the Carolinas and the Spaniards, the only one of the original thirteen colonies to recieve subsidies from the crown, haven for wretched souls imprisoned with debt also produced silk and wine. James Oglethorpe.
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
the doctrine that God has decided all things beforehand, including which people will be eternally saved
From John Calvin's predestination theology, the doctrine that God has already chosen those who will be saved, These elect people are to build a holy community as an example. Made politics not so much about power and privelege as it was about good and evil, right and wrong.
a sermon or prophecy recounting wrongdoing, warning of doom, and calling for repentance
The Great Awakening
religious revival in the 1730-40s, helped by Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield; inspired controversy over emotionalism/revivalism versus traditionalist Protestantism, nevertheless united the Americans as a people
Those who wanted to break all connections with the Church of England as opposed to most Puritans who believed it was possible to reform the church; the Pilgrims were Separatists.
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule.
Maryland Toleration Act
Act that was passed in Maryland that guaranteed toleration to all Christians, regardless of sect but not to those who did not believe in the divinity of Jesus. Though it did not sanction much tolerance, the act was the first seed that would sprout into the first amendment, granting religious freedom to all.
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
New England Confederation
New England Confederation was a Union of four colonies consisting of the two Massachusetts colonies (The Bay colony and Plymouth colony) and the two Connecticut colonies (New Haven and scattered valley settlements) in 1643. The purpose of the confederation was to defend against enemies such as the Indians, French, Dutch, and prevent intercolonial problems that effected all four colonies.
Dominion of New England
1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
A vast Dutch feudal estates fronting the Hudson River in early 1600s. They were granted to promoters who agreed to settle 50 people on them.
Virginia-Maryland bay area, site of the earliest colonial settlements
colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years
Remained high because demand was greater than supply.
an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part; a similar uprising in Maryland occurred later that year. The uprising was a protest against the governor of Virginia, William Berkeley.
Slave communities were rich with music, dance, basket-weaving, and pottery-making. Enslaved Africans brought them the arts and crafts skills of their various tribes.
Society in South
small group of wealthy planters, white farmers who owned small farms, small minority of free African Americans, majority of African Americans enslaved
Salem witch hunt
period of hysteria in 1692, when a group of teenaged girls accused neighbors of bewitching them; in ten months, nineteen people were executed and hundreds imprisoned. The hysteria subsided when the girls accused the more prominent individuals in the colony, including the governor's wife
A church grown out of the Puritan church, was established in all New England colonies but Rhode Island. It was based on the belief that individual churches should govern themselves
Form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head, at least in part to obtain a divorce from his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry's death
Revivalist ministers who emphasized emotive spirituality and encouraged missionary work among the natives, as well as founding many long-standing educational institutes, such as Princeton, Brown, and Dartmouth.
Orthodox clergymen who were deeply skeptical of the emotionalism and the antics of the Great Awakening.
What occupation did most people do in New France
French and Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in 1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
The Albany Congress
Delegates from 7 colonies gathered to form an alliance with the Iroquois and to form a union
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies
Sugar and Stamp Act
These were the first laws passed by British Parlament that raised taxes in the colonies. Cuased much boycotting among the colonies. Sugar Act: designed to eliminate illegal sugar trade between the colonies and the French. Mainly affected the area of New England.
Stamp Act: Most monumental of all the laws passed. Placed tax on most printed documents. Eventually repealed by King George III.
Prime Minister, close to the king, likeable, sponsored taxes, "Champagne Charlie", sponsored taxes for: lead, glass, paper, paint & tea.
A tax that the British Parliament placed on leads, glass, paint and tea.
Prime Minister of England, began enforcing 1763 Navigation Acts strictly and instituted other taxes the colonists found unbearable
Britain was facing serious debt issues, and was in danger of a destabilized economy. These were a series of acts designed to tax the colonies, which included the Stamp Act (1765), Quartering Act (1765), currency act (1764), Declatory Act (1766), and Revenue act (1764).
"Taxation without representation is tyranny".
British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members
Having a representative sent from the Colonies within Parliament.
Continental Congress of 1774
meeting of reps in Philadelphia to denounce Intolerable Acts and petition British Parliament. Discussed breaking from England.
Killed in Boston Massacre, black laborer, only African-American person killed in Boston Massacre, The African-Native American man who was the first man to die in the Boston Massacre, also considered the first death in the Revolutionary War.
1773 act which eliminated import tariffs on tea entering England and allowed the British East India Company to sell directly to consumers rather than through merchants. Led to the Boston Tea Party.
Committees of Correspondence
Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies.
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor.
First Continental Congress
September 1774, delegates from twelve colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts. 12/13 Colonies represented.
this set up a Canadian government, gave them religious freedom, & extended their borders to the Ohio River Valley (1774).
Lexington and Concord
the first battle of the American Revolution (April 19, 1775).