Naisbitt AP Euro Unit 5 -- Absolutism

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BAROQUE

elaborate an extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century

CARDINAL RICHELIEU

key figure in the emergence of a strong monarchy in France was Cardinal R., chief minister to Louis XIII, be eliminated the private armies and fortified cities of the Huguenots and crushing aristocratic conspiracies.

JAMES I

Originally from Scotland, believed in the divine rights of kings. This alienated Parliament.

DIVINE RIGHT MONARCHY

system that James I worked under and for that he believed that god had appointed him the mortal god

LOUIS XIII

king before Louis XIV and was born of Catherine de Medici

ROYAL COUNCILS

nobles who gathered and discussed proper way to govern the country. Either had support of king or did not (varied per location)

INTENDANTS

a provincial or colonial official of France, Spain, or Portugal

PHILIP IV

king of Spain, disliked Protestants, was always working

THE FRONDE

series of revolts against Louis XIV that were said to have been caused by tax increases, but were really limiting the power of the absolute monarchy.

LOUIS XIV

he was known as the Sun King because of his lavish palace and policies. He was interested in war, searching for natural boundaries so that his kingdom could be protected.

CHARLES I

He was Charles VI of Scotland in his early life, but later ruled England too to become Charles I of England. He was the first to unite the two countries, calling them the United Kingdom. He also called for a new edition of the Bible, now known as the King James Version.

PETITION OF RIGHT (1628)

a set of policies sent to Charles I by English Parliament telling him that he had to stop his policy of mandatory housing of soldiers in one's household.

WILLIAM LAUD

an archbishop that worked with Charles I to introduce more ritual into the Anglican church which signified a return to Catholic popery.

LONG PARLIAMENT

called by Charles I following the Bishop's Wars to finance bills. It sat almost continuously during the English Civil War.

OLVER CROMWELL

dedicated Puritan who formed the New Model Army and defeated the forces supporting King Charles I, could not work with Parliament so relied on military force to rule England

STUART RESTORATION

reestablishment of monarchy in the person of Charles II, the son of Charles I, after Cromwell's death. It temporarily ended England's troubles.

CHARLES II

was King of England, Scotland and Ireland. He was the eldest son of King Charles I of England and Queen Henrietta Maria. He had been forced to flee to France in 1646 because of civil war. After the death of Oliver Cromwell, he returned to England and was declared King by the Parliament on May 8, 1660 although he didn't reach London until May 29, 1660 which is considered the day of his restoration to the throne. Dissolved Parliament on January 24, 1679.

JAMES II

of England (James VII of Scotland), (October 14, 1633 - September 16. 1701), was a King of England, Scotland and Ireland, also brother of Charles II. He succeeded on the throne on February 6, 1685. James had a reputation for cruelty and thoughtlessness, and was also a Catholic, leading many of his subjects to distrust and dislike him. This dissatisfaction led to a conspiracy to replace James with his estranged daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange, both dedicated Protestants.

JOHN LOCKE

was an English Enlightenment philosopher whose notions of government with the consent of the governed and the natural rights of man (life, liberty, and property) had an enormous influence on colonial Americans, allowing them to justify revolution and shape a new government. Most influential work: On Civil Government.

GLORIOUS REVOLUTION

largely non-violent revolution (also sometimes called the "Bloodless Revolution"), 1688-16899 in which the Stuart king was removed from the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and replaced by William of the House of Orange and his wife and joint sovereign Mary.

THOMAS HOBBES

Wrote the Leviathan in 1651, arguing for the state having absolute authority of its subjects. Claimed that humans were led by animalistic instincts, and survived by forming commonwealths with a ruler who had absolute power.

WILLIAM III

Ruled England together as husband and wife. William (in being a Protestant) was always more concerned with the affairs of the Reformation and the Protestant-Catholic conflict, while Mary, was usually left to rule over the people of England (which grew into favoritism by the people for Mary as their ruler). The end of their rule brought forth a new age of rule over England throughout Parliament. (Their actual reign over England lasted from 1689-1702).

MARRY II

wife of william III- ruled together in England

BILL OF RIGHTS

Commenced as a law during the reign of William and Mary, affirming Parliament's right to make laws and levy taxes and making it impossible for kings to oppose or do without Parliament by stipulating that standing armies could be raised only with the consent of Parliament. Allowed citizens to petition the sovereign, keep arms, have a jury trial, and not be subject to excessive bail. Kings could not interfere with the elections of Parliament by the people, and the Bill of Rights laid the foundation for a constitutional monarchy.

FREDERICK WILLIAM

Known as the Great Elector, came into power over the Prussian state during the Thirty Years' War. Built a great army to help defend his country with no natural borders, and was inclined to favor the nobility at the expense of the middle and lower classes. (Nobility were highest officials in the army, were exempt from tax, and had almost complete control over their peasants). Used mercantilistic policies to build Prussia's economy. Developed the Commissariat to levy taxes for the army and oversee their training, and it eventually turned into an agency for civil government as well.

JUNKER

The name given to the nobility and landed aristocracy of Prussia.

PETER I

Peter the first earned himself the title as Peter the Great, and he is responsible for the influence of western society on Russia. Through his travels he brought back many western customs and practices. He completely changed the life styles of everyone around him. Through his modernization he caused Russia to become one of the greatest military powers.

BATTLE OF POLTAVA (1709)

The Battle of Poltava was during the Great Northern War, and it was a great battle in which Peter had an astounding win over Charles XII.

ST. PETERSBURG

capital of Russia during the reign of Peter the Great.

RAISON D'ETAT

French phrase meaning a reason of state, something important to the state which justifies its actions, but cannot be made public at the time.

REVOCATION OF EDICT OF NANTES

Ordered by Louis XIV, it resulted in the destruction of Huguenot churches and the closing of Protestant schools, and pushed the Huguenots out of France.

VERSAILLES

court of Louis XIV near Paris, was used as a home for the king and thousands of royal officials and aristocratic courtiers, a reception hall, and an office building. Versailles was a symbol of France's power and wealth as well as a way to limit the power of princes.

ACT OF SETTLEMENT

stated that the crown was to go to Sophia, granddaughter of James I, and her heirs. Parliament was also given the power to choose the successor to the throne, not the king.

MERCANTILISM

Type of economy based on amount of gold and silver. Believes total volume of trade was fixed and that loss meant someone else's gain. Likewise, your gain meant someone else's loss.

TREATY OF UTRECHT (1713)

Settled the War of the Spanish Succession by recognizing Philip, duke of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV of France, as Philip V, king of Spain, under the condition that the Spanish and French kingdoms would not be united.

WAR OF PANISH SUCCESSION

(1701-1714): war fought from 1701 to 1714 by the Grand Alliance, consisting originally of England, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Austria, and later, Portugal, against a coalition of France, Spain, and a number of small Italian and German principalities. The issue of the war was a conflict over the succession of Philip V of Spain to the Spanish crown. Philip's accession made possible an enormous increase in the power of France, it threatened to overthrow the balance of power in Europe.

TRIANGULAR TRADE

Trade route beginning with manufactured goods from Europe to Africa for slaves, then slaves from Africa to Americas, then slaves produce raw materials and goods for shipment back to Europe

NAVIGATION ACTS

These acts regulated the things that could be taken or sold to the British colonies.

CALICOES

A coarse, brightly printed cloth that seemed to coexist with the establishment of the East India Company.

BANK OF ENGLAND

It was founded in 1694. It differed from other banks, in that besides receiving deposits and exchanging foreign currencies, it made loans. They also provided "bank notes" that were a paper substitute for gold or silver currency. Also, the Bank of England issued government bonds being paid at regular interest which lead to a "national debt" which was separate from the monarch's personal debt.

JOINT-STOCK COMPANY

someone bought shares of a company and received dividends on it, while a board of directors ran the company. The joint-stock exchange made it easier to make large amounts of capitals for world trading.

BILLS OF EXCHANGE

often used to finance the movement of goods within a country or between one country and another. To take title to the goods, the drawee must pay the amount specified in the bill. The drawee must pay immediately if it is a sight bill. If it is a time bill, the drawee can accept it and pay later.

FLYBOATS

Any of various small, swift boats-taken into war

DUTCH REPUBLIC

one of Europe's great power, Atlantic power, underlined importance of the shift of political and economic power from the Mediterranean basin to the countries on the Atlantic seaboard.

BANK OF AMSTERDAM

first bank to not only received deposits of gold and silver and exchanged foreign currencies, it made loans.

SLAVE TRADE

new system of trade in the seventeenth century where slaves from Africa were traded instead of goods. Leaders of slave trade included Portugal and the Dutch.

ENGLISH/DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY

trading company established under governmental sponsorship which set up a settlement in the Cape of Good Hope (southern Africa)

NINE YEARS WAR

(1689-1697): Louis' attempt to put French royalty on the Spanish throne

SEVEN YEARS' WAR:

(1756-1763): Maria Theresa wanted Silesia back from Prussia, so she started another war. Britain and France were also fighting over colonial empires. France left Prussia, and joined Austria. Since Russia saw Prussia as a threat, they joined with Prussia. This war was ended by the Treaty of Hubertusburg and the Treaty of Paris. The treaty of Hubertusburg said that all land should be returned to its original owner and that Prussia got Silesia. The Treaty of Paris said that France had to withdraw and leave India to Britain.

TABLE OF RANKS

Peter the Great instituted it to create opportunities for non-nobles to serve the state and join the nobility. There were 14 levels. Each official was required to begin at level one and work his way up. When a non-noble reached the eighth rank, he became a noble.

CHARTER OF NOBILITY

(1785) These were the ruling officials over the districts in the Russian provinces. They were chosen by the nobles.

PUGACHEV'S REVOLT

(1774): He won the support of many peasants when he issued a manifest, which freed all peasants from oppressive taxes and military service. The peasants, encouraged by him to seize their landlords' estate, killed more than 1500 estate owners. Pugachev was captured, tortured, and executed.

PRAGMATIC SANTION

document produced by Charles VI to ensure the legality of Maria Theresa (his daughter) as heir to Austrian throne

WAR OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION

(1740-1748): France induced the war due to Maria Theresa's vulnerability

. PARTITIONS OF POLAND

divided into 3-one controlled by Russia & Prussia, one controlled by Austria, Russia, and Prussia, and one by solely Russia

GREAT NORTHERN WAR

(1700-1721): a War that was the result of the Battle of Narva

POLL TAX

A tax levied on people rather than on property, often as a requirement for voting.

CONSCRIPTION

A required enrollment into the military, also known as a draft.

SERF

A member of the lowest feudal class, attached to the land owned by a lord and required to perform labor in return for certain legal or customary rights.

CATHERINE THE GREAT

Wife of Peter III, she became empress of Russia and wanted to institute reform. She wrote the book Instruction, in which she questioned the institutions of serfdom, torture, and capital punishment. Favored landed nobility, which worsened the situation of Russian peasantry. She also vastly expanded Russian territory, taking over 50% of Poland's territory.

FREDERICK WILLIAM I

The ruler who helped Prussia into a period of success by building the military and strengthening the efficient bureaucracy of the nation.

FREDERICK THE GREAT

The Prussian Ruler who further established Prussia as a European power through military expansion and internal reform according to enlightenment philosophies.

ENLIGHTENED ABSOLUTISM

The concept of an absolute government (with one definite and all-powerful central figure that upholds the belief in natural human rights for all that emerged during the enlightenment.

MARIA THERESA

The Empress of Austria through the series of military conflicts with Prussia (the War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years War). She strengthened the absolutist government in Austria but failed to make the large scale reforms needed for the nation as a whole.

JOSEPH II

Ruled over England from 1685-1688. He was the successor to King Charles and was the center of a conflict between him and the Parliament. An open and devout Catholic, he issued a new Declaration of Indulgence, which suspended all laws barring Catholics and Dissenters from office.

PARTY SYSTEM-WHIGS AND TORIES

The Whigs wanted James II to be disposed of so that they could establish a Protestant king. The Tories, on the other hand, supported the king because they did not believe Parliament should temper with the lawful succession of the throne.

SIR ROBERT WALPOLE

): The chief prime minister to George I and George II. He pursued a peaceful foreign policy to avoid new land taxes.

PATRONAGE

the practice of awarding titles and making appointments to government and other positions to gain political support

GEORGE III

the king of England, after his two brothers George I and George II died. He dismissed his first two Prime Ministers and then found one that he liked named William Pitt. William Pitt restored stability to England for the rest of the century. George favored wars with France (1793-1815), which grew out of the French Revolution

SEVEN YEARS WAR

The Seven Years War followed the War of the Austrian Succession. In the War of the Austrian Succession Austria lost Silesia to Prussia. In the Seven Year War Austria reached a diplomatic revolution in which Austria allied France and England allied with Prussia. This was a complete flip of allies from the War of the Austrian Succession. In the end the English won the war over the French. Under the Peace of Hubertusburg all territories were returned in Europe and Austria realized that it had lost Silesia to Prussia.

DIPLOMATIC REVOLUTION

What Austria reached and then allied itself with France and England allied with Prussia, and Russia, during the Seven Years War.

SILESIA

Silesia is a region in Central Europe, today it is mostly southwestern Poland. The region was ruled by the Austrian Habsburgs from 1526 to 1742, and then Prussia took it over and the Austrians officially recognized they lost it during the Seven Years War in the Peace of Hubertusburg.

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