all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier -- but also more error-prone -- use of heuristics
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
Inability to see a problem from a new perspective
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common
the tendency to be more confident than correct--to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
One word stage
the stage in speech development from about age 1 to 2 during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
Two word stage
beginning about age 2 the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two word statements
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram--'go car'--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting 'auxiliary' words
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
a general intelligence factor that according to Spearman and others underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.
(A type of intelligence) a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.
a type of thinking that is associated with creativity - seeing lots of solutions to a problem
a type of critical thinking in which one evaluates existing possible solutions to a problem to choose the best one
a test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.
a test designed to assess what a person has learned.
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting.
The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
theory of human motivation that include five basic levels of human needs. Physiological Needs(thirst, hunger)->Safety Needs(Security, protection)->Social Needs(sense of belonging,love)->Esteem Needs(recognition, status)->Self Acutalization.Lower-level needs are an ongoing source of motivation for consumer purchase behavior. People are unlikely to move through the needs hierarchy in a stair-step manner. Because basic, lower level needs are met in most developed countries, marketers often target consumers' higher-level needs in order to sell products. Advertising can be used to show how a brand can fulfill these needs.
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.
Basal metabolic rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
Sexual response cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Matsters and Johnson-excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard
Language Acquisition Device
Chomsky's concept of an innate, prewired mechanism in the brain that allows children to acquire language naturally
a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience
James Lang Theory
Our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion arousing stimulit
Cannon bard theory
the theory that an emotion - arousing to stimulus simultaneously triggers 1 physiological responses & 2 the subjective experiences of emotion
Two factor theory
Schechter's Theory to experience emotions one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal
emotional release. In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.
feel good do good phenomenon
people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
subjective well being
Satisfaction w/ life. self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. used along with measures of objective well-being [for example, physical and economic indicators] to evaluate people's quality of life
adaption level phenomenon
Relative to previous experience. Tendency to form judgements relative to a neutral level (brightness of lights, volume of sound
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
general adaptation syndrome
Seylye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three stages--alarm, resistance, exhaustion
a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 549)
Literally, "mind-body" illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches.
ways to deal with stress
Set Priorities, Time Management, Relaxation, Meditation, Attitude.
sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety
a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension
3 levels of thinking
Thinking occurs on three levels. 1. Conscious processes - thinking we are consciously aware of. 2. Subconscious processes - thinking which lies just outside of our consciousness. Helps prevent overload. 3. Non-conscious processes - thinking which occurs outside and is not available to our conscious awareness. Why things pop into our head.
The purposeful process by which a person generates logical and coherent ideas, evaluates situations, and reaches conclusions.
the process of following and set of rigorous procedures for reaching valid conclusions
the process of evaluating a conclusion, theory, or course of action on the basis of believability of evidence
a process in which opposing facts or ideas are weighed and compared with a view to determining the best solution or resolving differences.
exaggerating the improbable
inclination to exaggerate the probability of rare events
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)
theories of language development
nature(language known at birth), nurture, critical period hypotheses(after puberty don't acquire)
the know how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully
one of sternberg's "three distinct abilities," dealing with ill-defined, everyday tasks with many solutions, street smarts
components of intelligence
1. Ability to learn and profit from experience. 2. Ability to think and reason abstractly. 3. Ability to adapt to a changing world. 4. Ability to motivate oneself to accomplish the tasks one needs to do.
environmental influences on intelligence
Studies indicate that environment accentuates whatever differences are present at birth. positive has positive effect on all. negative has most impact on average and highly intelligent. Can include: Nutrition. Toxic substances. Quality of stimulation. Emotional Climate at Home. Type of feedback elicited by behavior
A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
how we interpret or think about our own and other's actions
the things we look forward to as probable or certain
three levels of emotional response
1. Physiological arousal. 2. Expressive behaviors. 3. Conscious (cognitive) experience (Includes thought and feelings)
events or circumstances that trigger stress. Catastrophic events, life changes, chronic stressors, daily hassels, conflicts.
A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgment and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier, but more error-prone than algorithms
external locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate
internal locus of control
the perception that one controls one's own fate
impact of stress
Creates negative emotions and health related consqequences.
problem focused coping
directly changing or managing stressors
solution focused coping
(emotion focused coping) changing the way we view a stressor.
Swenson's Stress Model
Learning and Biological Theories of Language Development
Critical Period of Language Development
that the period between infancy and puberty (the beginning of adolescence) was a critical period for language acquisition.