Sociology 200 - Chapter 9

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high income countries have a high standard of living based on

advanced technology

global stratification

patterns of social inequality in the world as a whole

high income countries

the nations with the highest overall standards of living

middle income countries

the nations with a standard of living about average for the world as a whole

low income countries

the nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor

low income countries have a low standard of living due to

limited industrial technology

is the greatest social inequality within or between nations?

between

gender bias is strongest in _____ societies

poor

factors causing poverty

lack of technology, rapid population increase, resistance to change, unequal wealth disribution, gender inequality, exploitation due to colonialism

what makes people resist change?

traditional cultural patterns

colonialism

the process by which some nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of other nations

neocolonialism

a new form of global power relationships that involves not direct political control but exonomic exploitation by multinational corporations

modernization theory's 4 stages

traditional stage, take off stage, drive to technological maturity, high mass consumption

tradtional stage of the modernization theory

people's lives are built around families and local communities

take off stage of the modernization theory

a market emerges as people produce goods not just for their own use but to trade with others for profit

drive to technological maturity stage of the modernization theory

the ideas of economic growth and higher living standards gain widespread support; schooling is wide available; the social standing of women improves

high mass consumption stage of the mdoernization theory

advanced technology fuels mass production and mass consumption as people now "need" countless goods

the modernization theory claims that

rich nations can help poor nations by providing technology to control population size, iincrease food production, and expand industrial and information economy output and by providing foreign aid to pay for new economic development

critis of the modernization theory claim that

rich nations do little to help poor countries and benefit from the status quo, and because rich nations control the global economy, many poor nations struggle to suppor their people and cannot follow the path to development taken by rich countries centuries ago

dependency theory's three categories of nations

core, semiperiphery, periphery

dependency theory claims that

three key factors (export oriented economies, a lack of industrial capacity and foreign debt) make poor countries dependent on rich nations and prevent their economic development, and radical reform of the entire world economy is needed so that it operates in the interests of the majority of people

critics of the dependency theory claim that

it overlooks the sixfold increase in global wealth since 1950 and the fact that the world's poorest countries have had weak, not strong ties to rich countries; rich nations are not responsible for cultural patterns or political corruption that block economic development in many poor nations

s/f: how did global poverty come about?

the whole world was poor until some countries developed industrial technology, which allows mass production and created affluence

s/f: what are the main causes of global poverty today?

traditional culture and a lack of productive technology

s/f: are rich countries part of the problem or the solution?

solution, contributing new technology, advanced schooling, and foreign aid

s/c: how did global poverty come about?

colonialism moved wealth from some countries to others, making some nations poor as it made others rich

s/c: what are the main causes of global poverty today?

neocolonialism

s/c: are rich countries part of the problem or the solution?

rich countries are part of the probelm, making poor countries economically dependent and in debt

why do some people think that reducing poverty in low-income countries must start with raising women in those countries out of poverty?

the feminization of poverty puts a huge amount of women in absolute poverty, so focusing on women will greatly reduce total numbers. Also, because they are responsible for raising children, it will give the children better opportunities to grow up with more financial security. Giving women rights will allow them to work more kinds of jobs, earn more money, and receive better medical attention and birth control to keep them out of the house and in the work force.

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