Biology Terms, Prefixes & Suffixes

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biology terms for terminology quiz #5

autotroph

producer, plant capable of synthesizing its own food from simple organic substances; producer

heterotroph

an organism that depends on complex organic substances for nutrition; consumer

ATP

one of the principal chemical compounds that living thing use to store and release energy

ADP

ATP regenerates; as need by using the energy in foods like glucose

photosynthesis

process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches

chloroplast

organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy

chlorophyll

green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis

pigment

light-absorbing molecule

visible light

(physics) electromagnetic radiation that can produce a visual sensation

thylakoid

a flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.

photosystem

a cluster of chlorophyll and other molecules in a thylakoid that help to harvest light energy during photosynthesis

stroma

region outside the thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts

L.D.R.

reaction taking place in the chloroplast in which the absorption of a photon leads to the formation of ATP and NADPH

Calvin cycle

reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars

NADP+

carrier molecules that tranfers high engergy electron from chrrophyll to other molecules

glycolysis

first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid

fermentation

a process in which an agent causes an organic substance to break down into simpler substances

cellular respiration

process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen

aerobic

process that requires oxygen

anaerobic

process that does not require oxygen

E.T.C

a series of proteins in which the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle are used to convert ADP into ATP.

Joseph Priestly

finds the plant releases oxygen that keeps the candle burning

Melvin Calvin

traces the chemical path that carbon follows to form glucose

Jan Ingenhousz

finds that aquatic plants produce oxygen bubbles in light but NOT in dark. PLants need sunlight to produce oxygen

auto-

self

hetero-

different

-troph

food or feed

-synth

produce

chloro-

green

glyco-

sugars

an-

not or without

-oid

like; Ex: hemeroid

aero-

oxygen

photo-

light

stoma

a minute epidermal pore in a leaf or stem through which gases and water vapor can pass

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