Chemistry 1

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first section of chemistry, we are studying matter and water

element

an artifact that is one of the individual parts of which a composite entity is made up

energy

an exertion of force

gas

the state of matter distinguished from the solid and liquid states by: relatively low density and viscosity

kinetic energy

The energy of motion.

liquid

a substance in the fluid state of matter having no fixed shape but a fixed volume

matter

that which has mass and occupies space

mixture

(chemistry) a substance consisting of two or more substances mixed together (not in fixed proportions and not with chemical bonding)

organic compound

any compound of carbon and another element or a radical

potiental energy

energy that is stored and waiting to be used later

solid

it's molecules are dense and vibrate next to each other

state of matter

..., (chemistry) the three traditional states of matter are solids (fixed shape and volume) and liquids (fixed volume and shaped by the container) and gases (filling the container)

acid

pH of 0 to 7

acidity

the property of being acidic

base

pH of 7 to 14

hydrogen bond

a chemical bond consisting of a hydrogen atom between two electronegative atoms (e.g., oxygen or nitrogen) with one side be a covalent bond and the other being an ionic bond

ion

a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)

neutralization

a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base interact with the formation of a salt

pH

a value that indicates the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.

polarity

property of a molecule with oppositely charged ends. because of it, water is able to dissolve many different substances

solubility

the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure

solute

the dissolved substance in a solution

solution

a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances

solvent

the substance in which the solute dissolves

amino acid

organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group

carbohydrate

compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body

cholesterol

a type of fat made by the body from saturated fat; a minor part of fat in foods

complex carbohydrate

A long chain, or polymer, of simple carbohydrates

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics

disaccharide

A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis

double helix

Two strands of nucleotides wound about each other; structure of DNA

essential amino acid

eight(out of 20) of the amino acids that the human body can not produce on its own and must consume

fatty acid

an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils

esstential fatty acids

lipids that the human body can not make

functional group

group of atoms within a molecule that interacts in predictable ways with other molecules

lipid

an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents

monosaccharide

a simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbohydrate

nucleic acid

an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information

nucleotide

in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base

peptide

the kind of bond formed when two amino acid units are jointed end to end

phospholipid

any of various compounds composed of fatty acids and phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base

polysaccharide

long polymer chain made up of simple sugar monomers

protein

an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells

RNA

ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis

saturated fatty acid

A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that can attach to the carbon skeleton.

unsaturated fatty acid

A fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.

steroid

a type of lipid that consists of four carbon rings to which various functional groups are attached and that usually has a physiological action

trans fatty acid

a fatty acid with an odd molecule shape that forms when oils are partially hydrogenated

triglyceride

a lipid made of three fatty acid molecules and one glycerol molecule

activation energy

the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction

chemical reaction

the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances

endothermic reaction

A reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat.

exothermic reaction

a reaction that releases energy in the form of heat

enzyme

a type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing

product

a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction

reactant

a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction

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