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Chapter 3,4

Infection control

Established policies and procedures that must be followed to minimize the risk of spreading disease producing microorganisms.....Sanitized, Disinfect, Sterilize

Pathogens

Disease-producing(pathogenic)microorganisms.

Spores

Bacteria with a hard wall capsule that is resistant to heat.(Bacilli)

Bacteria

Are single-celled microorganisms that multiply rapidly, classified according to shape and arrangement

Fungi

Include yeast & molds, live on decomposing matter & within or on the body(e.g. vaginal yeast infections, athlete's foot)

Viruses

Can reproduce only if they are within a LIVING CELL, SMALLEST of all microorganisms, visible only viewed under an ELECTRON MICROSCOPE.

Parasites

RICKETTSIAE, infectious organism that need a HOST to SURVIVE, so they cannot live outside the body, smaller than bacteria, CARRIED by fleas, lice, ticks, & mites.

Aerobic

Microorganisms that need oxygen to grow

Anaerobes

Microorganisms that do not require oxygen to grow.

Sanitization

Process that REDUCES the # of microorganisms on an item, is the lowest level of infection control DOES NOT destroy all microorganisms or spores.(washing)

Disinfection

Destruction or inhibition of the activity of pathogens, BUT NOT spores, occurs when scrubbing or soaking an item with a chemical cleaning agent.(10% bleach solution)

Sterilization

Preocess that DESTROYS ALL microorganisms INCLUDING spores, occurs by using heat, steam under pressure, gas ultraviolet light or chemicals.

Chain of infection

Infectious agent(Germ) - Carrier(persom who has the disease) - Route of exit(way the germ will leave the body) - Method of transmission(direct or indirect contact) - Route of entry(way the germ get into another person's body) - Susceptible host(person that can be infected usually in poor health)

PPE

Personal protective equipment, protective items used to PREVENT EXPOSURE to blood & body fluids.(gowns, face shields, goggles, gloves)

"right to know" Law

OSHA's hazard communication standars that allows each employee to know of potential exposure problems.(chemicals she/he is working with)

Incision

the cutting of or into body tissues or organs (especially by a surgeon as part of an operation)

Ratchet

Part of an instrument used to keep it closed by interlocking both sides,

Relationship between jewelry and soap(handwashing)

It most be remove (ring, watch)..Jewelry traps microorganisms & dirt, which will not be washed away if jewelry is left on, preventing thorought handwashing.

Curette

Surgical instrument, is a long-handled with a metal loop on one end, used for scraping the inside os a cavity.

Serosanguineous

Wound drainage, consists of SERUM & BLOOD.

Classification of wounds

Open wound, Superficial wound, Deep wound, Closed wound.

Open Wound

is a break in the sking or mucous membranes & can be classified as either superficial or deep.

Superficial Wound

Do not extend beyond the subcutaneous layers.

Deep Wound

extend beyond the subcutaneous layer

Closed Wound

Does not show a break in the skin, tissues are bruised or bleed internally,caused by trauma to the body.

Scalpel

Surgical instrument used with a knife blade used to make an incision, sizes range from 10 to 25

Retractors

are instruments used to hold back the adges os a wound or incision to expose the operative area(keeps the wound open)

Forceps

Are 2-pronged instruments for grasping or holding body tissue, foreign bodies, or surfical materials.

Surgical asepsis

Is removing ALL microorganisms, BOTH pathogenic & non pathogenic, from an object.

Sutures

are foreign materials used to approximate skin edges or ligate(tie off) blood vessels until healing is compete.

Which sutures dissolve the fastest?

Catgut

What factors affect wound healing

1)General state of the PT's health. 2)Good nutrition. 3)Adequate blood supply and normal clotting. 3)Use of proper aseptic technique during surgery and dressing changes.

Lacerations

tears or deep cuts in the skin, damage to the epidermis & dermis

Lacerations repair

A wound is cleaned and debrided, local anesthetic is used, sutures bring the edges of the wound together,sterile dressing is applied.

Skin Closures

Are long, narrow ADHESIVE STRIPS that are used to CLOSE small wound areas INSTEAD of sutures, are applied at 1/8-inch intervals until the wound is approximated together...TO REMOVE: each tape is peeled off from the outside toward the wound.

Suture needles

Can be straight or curved in various degrees, they have different types of pointed ends.Sharp Point (cutting) needle cuts tissues.Round Pointed needle(tapered)separastes tissues.

Local Anesthetics

produce a limited & brief loss of sensation in the area of injection, freezing or application.

Epinephrine

Is added to some LOCAL ANESTHETICS, it causes the BLOOD VESSELS to constrict, thereby holding the anesthetic in the tissues longer and minimizing bleeding.

General anesthesia

produce unconsciousness by depressing the central nervous system, used for major surgery , PT is usually required to have no food or water(NPO) after 9am or midnight the night before.

Normal Flora

Microorganisms on the epidermis and deeper layers of the skin that are usually non pathogenic.

Transient Flora

Refers to microorganisms that grow on the surface of the skin and are picked up easily by the hands. ( Pathogenic)

Steam Sterilization

An AUTOCLAVE is used to produce steam under pressure, primary method used in the medical office

scalpels

(knife handle) A straight, pointed blade is used for incision and drainage.

Scalpel blades range in size from

10 to 25

Hand hygiene

on of the most effective ways to reduce pathogenic transmission (hand washing) it includes Antiseptic hand rub(alcohol-containing)Handwashing(soap & water)Antiseptic (water & a soap containing an antiseptic)Surgical(antiseptic preparation for an extended time following a certain protocol)

Abrasion

Damage to the superficial layer of the skin (epidermis)

Sterile package can be store for how long

pouch 21 day & muslin wrappers 30 day

Primary wound closure

open and close the same day.

Second wound closure

large wound is not closed same day, heals from the bottom up.

Delayed wound closure

tertiary healing, occurs when the wound is left open because of infection, require debridement.

Medical asepsis

Clean technique, reduces the # of microorganisms.

Surgical asepsis

sterile technique , used to prevent the spread of microorganism when skin or mucous membranes have been broken

Guidelines for preventing contamination

1) maintain 1 inch border around sterile field. 2) Do not turn your back to a sterile field.

cutting & dissecting

cut body tissues, Scissors, Scalpels, Biopsy punches, Curettes

Grasping & clamping

hold body tissues, Forceps, Needle holder

Retracting

hold back edges of the body tissues, Agricola lid retractor, Volkmann finger retractor

Probing & dilating

explore body cavities, Pratt rectal probe, Walther female urethral dilator

Suturing

close a wound, Mayo Hegar needle holder, Thumb forceps

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