ESC1000 Chapter 7/8 Plate Tectonics

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Theory of Plate Tectonics

Theory that says Earth's outer shell is made of individual plates that move across its surface and interact with each other.

6 inches per year

Speed of the Pacific plate

quarter inch per year

Speed of the North American Plate

Theory of Continental Drift

Theory that says Earth's continents move across its surface and may interact with each other, proposed by Alfred Wegener in 1915.

Pangaea

Name of the ancient supercontinent proposed by Alfred Wegener

fit of coastlines

Four lines of evidence for continental drift proposed by Alfred Wegener: 1) ______; 2) similarities in fossils from different areas; 3) similarities in rock types and structural features on different continents; 4) Paleoclimatic evidence

similarities in fossils from different areas

Four lines of evidence for continental drift proposed by Alfred Wegener: 1) fit of coastlines; 2) ______; 3) similarities in rock types and structural features on different continents; 4) Paleoclimatic evidence

similarities in rock types and structural features on different continents

Four lines of evidence for continental drift proposed by Alfred Wegener: 1) fit of coastlines; 2) similarities in fossils from different areas; 3) ______; 4) Paleoclimatic evidence

Paleoclimatic evidence

Four lines of evidence for continental drift proposed by Alfred Wegener: 1) fit of coastlines; 2) similarities in fossils from different areas; 3) similarities in rock types and structural features on different continents; 4) ______

dating rocks from deep-sea drilling

Four modern lines of evidence for continental drift proposed after Alfred Wegener: 1) ______; 2) volcanic hotspots like Hawaii; 3) paleomagnetism; 4) measurement by satellite and radio telescope.

volcanic hotspots like Hawaii

Four modern lines of evidence for continental drift proposed after Alfred Wegener: 1) dating rocks from deep-sea drilling; 2) ______; 3) paleomagnetism; 4) measurement by satellite and radio telescope.

paleomagnetism

Four modern lines of evidence for continental drift proposed after Alfred Wegener: 1) dating rocks from deep-sea drilling; 2) volcanic hotspots like Hawaii; 3) ______; 4) measurement by satellite and radio telescope.

measurement by satellite and radio telescope

Four modern lines of evidence for continental drift proposed after Alfred Wegener: 1) dating rocks from deep-sea drilling; 2) volcanic hotspots like Hawaii; 3) paleomagnetism; 4) ______.

divergent boundary

Three types of plate boundaries: 1) _____; 2) convergent boundary; 3) transform boundary

convergent boundary

Three types of plate boundaries: 1) divergent boundary; 2) _____; 3) transform boundary

transform boundary

Three types of plate boundaries: 1) divergent boundary; 2) convergent boundary; 3) _____

divergent boundary

Zone where two or more plates are moving away from each other

convergent boundary

Zone where two or more plates are running into each other

transform boundary

Zone where two plates are moving past each other.

rising mantle plumes

What causes a divergent boundary?

Mid Atlantic ridge

Example of a divergent boundary

120

Degree angles of the split on a triple junction

plate collisions

What causes a convergent boundary?

continental-oceanic

Which type of plate collision creates a subduction zone and volcanic arc?

subduction zone and volcanic arc

What does a collision of continental and oceanic plates create?

subduction zone

Feature created when an oceanic plate descends into the asthenosphere

volcanic arc

Linear group of volcanoes that form due to subduction of an oceanic plate under a continental plate

Andes and Cascades

Two examples of an oceanic and continental plate colliding (alphabetical order)

specific gravity

What determines which continent goes under in the subduction zone?

oceanic-oceanic

Which type of plate collision creates a subduction zone and volcanic island arc?

folded mountains

What does a collision of two continental plates create?

volcanic island arc

Linear group of volcanoes that form due to subduction of an oceanic plate under another oceanic plate

Aleutian Islands, Indonesia, Japan

Three examples of volcanic island arcs (alphabetical order)

older basalt has higher SG

What determines which oceanic plate goes under the other?

continental-continental

Which type of plate collision creates folded mountains?

Himalaya Mountains

Example of continental-continental plate collision

no subduction zone

Why are there no volcanoes in a continental-continental plate collision?

terranes

Portions of crust that become accreted to the edge of a continent which are often different in nature from the main continent.

San Andreas Fault

Example of a transform boundary

transform boundary

Large fault that moves laterally.

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