States of Matter

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States of matter - Chapter 2 - Section 1, 2, 3 6th Grade

matter

anything that has mass and takes up space

chemistry

study of properties of matter and how matter changes

physical property

A characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance

chemical property

ability of a substance to change into different substances

atom

basic particle that makes up an element

weight

force of gravity on an object

mass

measurement of how much matter an object contains

volume

the amount of space an object takes up

volume formula

length x width x height

cubic centimeter

common unit of measuring volume of solids

density

the amount of matter in a given space

density formula

mass / volume

physical change

matter changes its appearance but does not change into a different substance

chemical change

produces new substances with different properties from those of the original substance

law of conservation of mass

matter is not created or destroyed in any chemical or physical reaction

thermal energy

most common form of energy released or absorbed when matter changes

endothermic change

change in which energy is taken or absorbed

exothermic change

change in which energy is released, or given off

solid

particles are packed closely together

solid

has fixed, closely packed arrangement of particles which results in a definite shape and volume

liquid

Has a definite volume but no shape of its own

liquid

takes the shape of its container

fluid

a substance that flows

gas

does not have a definite shape nor a definite volume

melting

changing states from a solid to a liquid

melting point

specific temperature at which a substance melts

freezing

change of state from a liquid to a solid

vapor

matter that exists in the gas state but is generally a liquid or solid at room temperature

vaporization

change in state from a liquid to a gas

evaporation

vaporization on a liquid's surface

boiling

vaporization throughout a liquid

boiling point

certain temperature that causes a substance to boil

condensation

particles in a gas lose enough thermal energy to form a liquid

sublimation

surface articles of a solid gain enough energy to become a gas and do not pass through the liquid state

temperature

the average kinetic energy of the individual particles

thermal energy

the total kinetic energy of all the particles in a substance.

heat

the movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature

liter

common unit for measuring liquid volume

viscosity

a fluid's resistance to flow

plasma

Fourth state of a matter which occurs at extremely high temperatures. Plasma is found in stars, lightning and neon lights.

crystal

a solid in which the atoms are arranged in a repeating, three-dimensional patterns.

crystalline solids

solids made up of crystals with repeating three-dimensional patterns.

Amorphous Solids

Solids in which the particles are arranged randomly without forming crystal structures.

surface tension

the uneven forces acting on the particles on the surface of a liquid

Vibrate

particles in a solid can't move out of their fixed position but they vibrate in a fixed position.

specific heat

the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance 1 degree Celsius

buoyant force

the upward force that keeps an object immersed in or floating on a fluid

archimedes principle

the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object

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