Microbiology Chapter 3

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Some __________ use group translocation as a means of transport.

bacteria

Which of the following is unique to archaea?

hami

The accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate inside a bacterial cell via phosphorylation of glucose is an example of

group translocation

__________ may have pili.

Bacteria

A(n) ________ is a carrier protein that transports two substances in the same direction across a membrane.

symport

The cell walls of __________ contain peptidoglycan.

bacteria

A(n) ________ is a type of glycocalyx that is firmly attached to the cell.

capsule

When cells are placed in a hypertonic solution, they lose water and shrivel. This process is called

crenation.

Which of the following scenarios is an example of bacterial motility?

A bacterium moving towards a food source

Axial filaments are found on

spirochetes

A bacterial cell possesses a glycocalyx. Which of the following is NOT true?

It will be engulfed more quickly by defensive cells of the host.

__________ may have flagella.

Archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes

How do axial filaments differ from regular bacterial flagella?

The axial filament is located between the cell membrane and the outer membrane.

What is the advantage to spirochetes of the corkscrew movement provided by axial filaments?

It allows the cells to move more easily through viscous human tissues and fluids, such as mucus.

Axial filaments are composed of

endoflagella

Which of the following bacterial cell structures plays an important role in the creation of biofilms?

both fimbriae and glycocalyces

The hami of some archaea are used for which of the following processes?

attachment

Which of the following statements concerning pili is FALSE?

Pili are longer than fimbriae and flagella.

The ________ anchors the bacterial flagellum in the cell wall.

basal body

________ are fibrous structures some archaea use for attachment to surfaces.

Hami

Which of the following molecules would be blocked by a cell membrane?

Ions

Hydrophobic molecules would enter a cell

through integral transport proteins.

What is a hallmark of passive transport across cell membranes?

It occurs along an electrochemical gradient, and may involve the use of transport proteins.

A positively charged sodium ion

would require the use of integral protein channels to pass through a cell membrane.

Which of the following statements regarding active transport is false?

It powers the diffusion of water across the cell membrane.

PHB is NOT associated with which of the following words?

ribosome

Bacterial cell walls that are resistant to drying contain

waxes.

Which of the active transport types employs diffusion?

symport

What type of transport uses two transport proteins?

symport

Sodium and potassium ions need to be pumped simultaneously against their concentration gradients. Which one of the transport proteins would be most effective at this?

antiport

Why are ATPases associated with active transport proteins?

They provide transport proteins with the energy needed to pump molecules against their concentration gradients.

Efflux pumps can be used to pump antibiotics out of a cell once they enter to protect the cell. This will be done against the concentration gradient of the antibiotic. Which of the active transports would most likely be used?

uniport

A bacterial cell moving toward light would be an example of

positive phototaxis.

Which of the following statements concerning prokaryotic flagella is FALSE?

Prokaryotic flagella are composed of tubulin.

Bacterial pili can be described as

specialized fimbriae.

Why is no energy required in passive transport?

The concentration gradient drives the movement.

Once equilibrium is reached,

molecules move, but there is no net movement in a particular direction.

Which of the following would not move freely across the cytoplasmic membrane?

Positively charged hydrogen ions

Which of the following may have cell walls containing teichoic acids?

Gram-positive bacteria

Which of the following may have cell walls containing teichoic acids?

Gram-positive bacteria

How is osmosis different from simple diffusion?

Water movement is driven by the concentration of solutes rather than its own concentration.

Nonspecific permeases

allow a variety of molecules to cross the cytoplasmic membrane.

What will happen to a cell that is placed in a solution containing a high concentration of sugar, a molecule that cannot pass across the cell membrane?

The cell will lose its interior water, causing it to shrivel up and possibly die.

How is simple diffusion different from other types of passive transport?

Simple diffusion does not require a permease.

What structural part of a bacterial flagellum is composed of flagellin?

filament

How are Gram-positive and Gram-negative flagella different?

A Gram-positive flagellum has only two rings in its basal body; Gram-negatives each have four.

The rings

anchor the flagellum to the cell wall.

The basal body is comprised of which structural component(s) of flagella?

Rod and Rings

Pathogenic bacteria

can be identified and classified by differences in their flagellar proteins.

ATP is expended in which of the following processes?

both active transport and group translocation

Lipid-soluble molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane by which of the following processes?

diffusion

Bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma are distinguished from other bacterial cells by

the absence of a cell wall.

In a(n) ________ solution, an animal cell can gain so much water that it may burst.

hypotonic

Which of the following is NOT a component of bacterial cell walls?

tubulin

The presence of a(n) ________ enables bacterial and plant cells to resist the effects of hypotonic solutions.

cell wall

Which of the following chemical substances contributes to the unique characteristics of acid-fast bacteria?

mycolic acid

What makes phospholipid membranes good at keeping some molecules out, and allowing others to freely pass?

They have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions.

Integral proteins are mostly involved in

transport function.

How does water enter and exit a cell?

By simple diffusion or by use of an integral transport protein

A glycoprotein

is a type of peripheral protein above that can be used as a receptor or in enzymatic functions.

The cell walls of __________ contain tetrapeptides.

Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

Lipid __________ is a part of the Gram-negative cell wall that can produce fever, inflammation, and shock when it is released into the bloodstream. (Be sure to use capital letters.)

A

Which of the following molecules is shared by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms?

N-acetylmuramic acid

Amoxicillin is an antibiotic that inhibits the formation of peptide cross-links. Amoxicillin, therefore, would most likely inhibit the growth of __________.

both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms

Porins are present in ______________bacteria because, in these organisms, molecules entering the cell must pass through an extra layer of ___________.

Gram-negative; membrane

Which of the following is NOT a component of bacterial flagella?

tubulin

Which of the following prokaryotic cells contains an outer membrane?

Gram-negative bacteria

Endospores survive a variety of harsh conditions in part because of the presence of

dipicolinic acid.

A higher concentration of solutes corresponds to a ________ (higher/lower) concentration of water in a given solution.

lower

Another name for a channel protein in the cell membrane is ________.

permease

The archaea are similar to bacteria in all of the following ways EXCEPT __________.

their ribosomal proteins

Using a microscope, you observe an amoeba moving toward a food source. This is an example of

responsiveness

Why is ATP necessary for active transport?

ATP provides energy to transfer material against its concentration gradient.

Which type of active transport protein moves two molecules into the cell at the same time?

Symport

Which transport protein employs transporters that move molecules only in one direction?

Uniport and Symport

Which molecule shown in the animation, the square or the circle, is moving against its concentration gradient?

Both the circle and the square

Which type of active transport protein uses one protein to pump two different molecules?

Antiport and Symport

The reserve deposits of starch or other compounds found in many prokaryotic cells are called ________.

inclusions

Cytoplasmic membranes of __________ are composed of phospholipids.

both bacteria and eukaryotes

Hopanoids are found in __________ cytoplasmic membranes.

bacterial

A bacterial cell stains positive with the acid-fast stain. Which of the following is NOT true?

It has a cell wall that contains endotoxin.

The cytoplasmic membranes of __________ contain lipids.

All prokaryotes

Which of the following statements concerning osmosis is FALSE?

During osmosis, water crosses to the side of the membrane with a lower solute concentration.

Which of the following molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane rapidly and without the use of transport proteins?

small hydrophobic molecules

Which of the following statements concerning the characteristics of life is FALSE?

reproduction is defined as an increase in the size of an organism.

Tumbles occur when

the flagella rotate clockwise.

Which of the following types of bacterial cells would have only a single flagellum?

Monotrichous

Peritrichous bacteria make a run when

the flagella turn counterclockwise and become bundled.

Which of the following types of bacterial cells would have flagella located at only one end of the cell?

Lophotrichous and monotrichous

A bacterial cell is placed in distilled water. Which of the following will happen?

The cell will gain water.

Lipid A is also known as

endotoxin.

Some members of the __________ have hami.

archaea

Which of the following statements about bacterial flagella is true?

Flagella can rotate 360 degrees.

Taxis is

movement towards or away from a stimulus.

Which of the following terms refers to a bacterium moving towards a light source?

Positive phototaxis

As a bacterium approaches a food source, one would expect

runs to become more frequent.

Why are receptors on the cell surface necessary for bacterial movement?

The receptors sense the stimulus and send signals to the flagella.

Which of the following have external structures containing a periplasmic space?

Gram-negative bacteria

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