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mestizo

mixed spanish and native american-population

hernando cortes

spaniard wh olanded on shores of mexico. was a conquistador. learned of wealthy aztec empire and landed in the capital, tenochitilan. aztec emporer, montezuma, convinced explorer was a god wearing armor. agreed to give explorer share of empire's gold supply. later killed many aztecs. later conquered aztecs.

aztec

rich empire in mexico

christopher columbus

genoese captain who made a daring voyage from spain. instead of sailing south around africa and then east, sailed west across the Atlantic in search of an alternate trade route to Asia and its riches. never reached asia. found island of caribbean. brought together peoples of europe, africa, and the americas. when reached america, thought reached east indies, later called indians. later went on another voyage to americas as an empire builder.

encomienda

system in which the spanish forced the native americans to work. under system, holders promised spanish rulers that they would act fairly and with respect. many abused this.

montezuma II

emporer of aztec empire. thought cortes was a god wearing armor. got kidnapped by cortes and was strangeled to death.

francisco pizarro

conquistador who marched a small force into south america. conquered ican empire. met with ican ruler, atahualpa near city if cajamarca. later crushed ican force, and kidnapped atahualpa. emporer had on of the biggest ransoms, then strangeled the king.

the dutch in north america

established a colony when they didn't find a route through North America to Asia which would become highly profitable

quebec

base of France's colonial empire known as New France, founded by Samuel de Champlain and 32 colonists

new netherland

what the dutch holdings in north america is known by

jamestown

a colony in Virginia in which was named after Englan's king, king James

pilgrims

founded second English colony, plymouth, in massachusetts. they got persecuted for their religious beliefs in England

puritans

sought religious freedom from england's anglican church. established a larger colony nearby massachusetts bay. wanted to build a model community that would set an example for christians to follow

the french and indian war

the conflict between the british and french on the north american continent. became part of a larger conflict known as the seven years war

metacom

native american ruler (also known as king philip) who began the king philip's war by leading an attack on colonial villages throughout massachusetts. colonists defeated the natives

the joint-stock company

worked like modern-day corporation, with investors buying shares of stock in a company. it involved a number of people combining their wealth for a common purpose

capitalism

an economic system based on private ownership and the investment of recources, such as money, for profit. it was one aspect of the european economic revolution

the columbian exchange

the global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the americas

mercantilism

theory held that a country's power depended mainly on its wealth. nations of europe adoped this new policy.

new france

the base of france's colonial empire in north america

europeans and africans

one group that bought the other group for slavery

montreal

island found by frenchman jacques cartier who reached a gulf off the eastern coast of canada that led to a broad river. he followed the river (which he named st. laurence) and found this island

new york

discovered by giovanni de varrazzano who sailed to north america in search of a sea route to the pacific.

massachusetts

holds colony of plymouth and home of the pilgrims and puritans

plymouth

colony founded by the pilgrims in massachusetts

the middle passage

the voyage that brought captured africans to the west indies and later to north and south america

the triangular trade

the trade in which africans transported to the americas were part of a translantic trading

favorable balance of trade

one of the ways, according to mercantilism, that a nation could increase its wealth and power in which it sold more goods than bought

the slave trade in africa

tbd

african and muslim societies

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bartolome de las casas

early spanish missionary. dominican monk

tbd

What was the general pattern of conquest and settlement followed by the Spanish in the Americas?

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How were the French, Dutch, and English interests and activities in North America similar and how were they different?

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What effects did the establishment of colonial empires in the Americas and the dramatic increase in overseas trade and the world's wealth have on Europe?

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How did slavery in the Americas differ from slavery in most African and Muslim societies?

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What enabled the Spanish forces to conquer the Aztec people?

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How did the English gain control of Dutch and French interests in North America, and why did England want to gain control of that land?

tbd

What were the chief reasons that the French, English, and Dutch each were interested in North America during this time. How did the occupations and activities of the French, English, and Dutch compare?

tbd

Do you think the native peoples of the Americas could have successfully defended their civilizations if they had been more suspicious of the first Spanish to arrive? Explain.

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What are some ways in which slavery in African and Muslim societies was different from slavery in the Americas?

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What are some reasons that Africans were considered ideal laborers for the plantations and mines of the European colonists in the Americas?

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Why did the trade in African slaves increase dramatically in the seventh century?

Europe, africa, and the americas

What are three nations, continents, or regions that were an essential part of the triangular trade network?

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What were some of the ways in which the Atlantic slave trade affected African and American societies from the 1400s to the 1800s?

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What was the starting point and what were the ending points of the middle passage?

theory that the nations of europe adopted that held that a country's power depended mainly on its wealth...

What was mercantilism? How and why did it encourage European colonization of the Americas?

slaves, raw material, and processed things from england/europe

What are some of the goods that were essential to the triangular trade network?

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