Iberian Muslim philosopher; studied Greek rationalism; ignored among Muslims but influential in Europe
Replaced Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted large trade expeditions to southern Asia and Africa; later concentrated on internal development within China; restored civil service exam
: Muslim Chinese seaman; commanded expeditions throughout the Indian Ocean.
Cultural and political elite movement beginning in Italy circa 1400; based on urban vitality and expanding commerce; produced literature and art with distinctly more secular priorities than those of the European Middle Ages
14th-century bubonic plague; decimated populations in Asia and Europe
Portugal, Castile, and Aragon
Regional Iberian kingdoms; participated in reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslims; developed a vigorous military and religious agenda.
Italian author and humanist; a major literary figure of the Renaissance.
Genoese explorers who attempted to find a western route to the "Indies"; precursors of European thrust into southern Atlantic
Vasco da Gama
: Portuguese explorer; first European to reach India by sea around Africa
Henry the Navigator
Portuguese prince; sponsored Atlantic voyages; reflected the forces present in late postclassical Europe
Judging foreigners by the standards of one's own group; leads to problems in interpreting world history.
polynesian people in present day New Zealand