PSY2012 Chapter 9 Motivation and Emotion

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motivation

A need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal.

instinct theory (replaced by evolutionary perspective)

Four perspectives that explain motivation: 1)_______; 2) drive reduction theory (biological needs); 3) arousal theory; 4) hierarchy of motives.

drive reduction theory (biological needs)

Four perspectives that explain motivation: 1) instinct theory (replaced by evolutionary perspective); 2)_________; 3) arousal theory; 4) hierarchy of motives.

arousal theory

Four perspectives that explain motivation: 1) instinct theory (replaced by evolutionary perspective); 2) drive reduction theory (biological needs); 3)________; 4) hierarchy of motives.

hierarchy of motives

Four perspectives that explain motivation: 1) instinct theory (replaced by evolutionary perspective); 2) drive reduction theory (biological needs); 3) arousal theory; 4) ________.

Instincts

Complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout different species and are not learned.

Drive Reduction Theory

The idea that a physiological need creates and aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.

physiological needs

Basic bodily requirements.

drive

An aroused, motivated state, that PUSHES us into action, often created by deprivation of a needed substance.

incentive

A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior, and PULLS us into action.

incentive

An EXtrinsic motivator.

drive

An INtrinsic motivator.

Arousal Theory

Theory that states that human motivation aims to seek optimum levels of arousal, not to eliminate it.

Abraham Maslow

Name of the founder of the humanistic approach to psychology.

hierarchy of needs

Maslow's pyramid of human needs; at the base are physiological needs that must be satisfied before higher-level safety needs, and then psychological needs, become active.

physiological needs

Maslow's hierarchy of needs (five levels): 1)_______; 2) safety; 3) belongingness and love; 4) esteem; 5) self-actualization.

safety

Maslow's hierarchy of needs (five levels): 1) physiological needs; 2)_______; 3) belongingness and love ; 4) esteem; 5) self-actualization.

belongingness and love

Maslow's hierarchy of needs (five levels): 1) physiological needs; 2) safety; 3)_______; 4) esteem; 5) self-actualization.

esteem

Maslow's hierarchy of needs (five levels): 1) physiological needs; 2) safety; 3) belongingness and love ; 4)_______; 5) self-actualization.

self-actualization

Maslow's hierarchy of needs (five levels): 1) physiological needs; 2) safety; 3) belongingness and love ; 4) esteem; 5) _______.

physiological

Type of need: need to satisfy hunger and thirst.

safety

Type of need: need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; to feel safe, secure and stable.

belongingness and love

Type of need: need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted, to avoid loneliness and alienation.

esteem

Type of need: need for self-esteem, achievement, competence and independence, need for recognition and respect from others.

self actualization

Type of need: need to live up to one's fullest and unique potential.

hypothalamus

Part of the brain that receives messages from the stomach, liver and intestines about levels of glucose in the blood.

memory

Mental process that plays an important part in hunger, so that amnesia patients eat frequently if given food.

set point

The point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.

basal metabolic rate

The body's resting rate of energy expenditure.

heredity

_______ influences our body type and the "set point" of the body's weight 'thermostat'.

body chemistry and environment

Two factors that influence when we feel hunger and what we feel hungry for.

glucose

The form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body issues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.

anorexia nervosa

An eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent woman) maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly (15 percent or more) under weight. Continuously loses weight but still feels overweight.

bulimia nervosa

An eating disorder in which a person alternates episodes of binge-eating (usually of high-calorie foods) with purging (vomiting, laxative use), fasting or excessive exercise.

sexual abuse (contributes but not causes)

Four reasons for eating disorders: 1)_______; 2) family (excessive concern with weight); 3) genetics; 4) sports.

family (excessive concern with weight)

Four reasons for eating disorders: 1) sexual abuse (contributes but not causes); 2) _______; 3) genetics; 4) sports.

genetics

Four reasons for eating disorders: 1) sexual abuse (contributes but not causes); 2) family (excessive concern with weight); 3) _______; 4) sports.

sports

Four reasons for eating disorders: 1) sexual abuse (contributes but not causes); 2) family (excessive concern with weight); 3) genetics; 4) _______.

obesity

Disorder characterized by being excessively overweight.

cardiovascular disease and heart disease

Ten health issues increased by obesity:1) _______; 2) _______; 3) diabetes; 4) hypertension; 5) arthritis; 6) back problems; 7) cancer 8) gallstones; 9) shorter life expectancy; 10) death.

diabetes and hypertension

Ten health issues increased by obesity: 1) cardiovascular disease; 2) heart disease; 3) _______; 4) _______; 5) arthritis; 6) back problems; 7) cancer 8) gallstones; 9) shorter life expectancy; 10) death.

arthritis and back problems

Ten health issues increased by obesity: 1) cardiovascular disease; 2) heart disease; 3) diabetes; 4) hypertension; 5) _______; 6) _______; 7) cancer 8) gallstones; 9) shorter life expectancy; 10) death.

cancer and gallstones

Ten health issues increased by obesity: 1) cardiovascular disease; 2) heart disease; 3) diabetes; 4) hypertension; 5) arthritis; 6) back problems; 7) _______ 8) _______; 9) shorter life expectancy; 10) death.

shorter life expectancy and death

Ten health issues increased by obesity: 1) cardiovascular disease; 2) heart disease; 3) diabetes; 4) hypertension; 5) arthritis; 6) back problems; 7) cancer 8) gallstones; 9) _______; 10) _______.

30 to 40 billion

Number of fat cells in a normal body.

2 to 3

How many times can a fat cell increase in size?

75 billion

Number of fat cells that an obese person can reach.

Inactivity

How TV contributes to increase of weight.

be motivated

Five steps to losing weight: 1) _______; 2) begin a weight loss program; 3) minimize exposure to tempting foods; 4) exercise; 5) forgive yourself for lapses.

begin a weight loss program

Five steps to losing weight: 1) be motivated; 2) _______; 3) minimize exposure to tempting foods; 4) exercise; 5) forgive yourself for lapses.

minimize exposure to tempting foods

Five steps to losing weight: 1) be motivated; 2) begin a weight loss program; 3) _______; 4) exercise; 5) forgive yourself for lapses.

exercise

Five steps to losing weight: 1) be motivated; 2) begin a weight loss program; 3) minimize exposure to tempting foods; 4) _______; 5) forgive yourself for lapses.

forgive yourself for lapses

Five steps to losing weight: 1) be motivated; 2) begin a weight loss program; 3) minimize exposure to tempting foods; 4) exercise; 5) _______.

hypothalamus monitoring appetite

Six BIOLOGICAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) _______; 2) appetite hormones; 3) stomach pangs; 4) weight set point; 5) universal attraction of sweet and salty; 6) adaptive wariness toward novel foods.

appetite hormones

Six BIOLOGICAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) hypothalamus monitoring appetite; 2) _______; 3) stomach pangs; 4) weight set point; 5) universal attraction of sweet and salty; 6) adaptive wariness toward novel foods.

stomach pangs

Six BIOLOGICAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) hypothalamus monitoring appetite; 2) appetite hormones; 3) _______; 4) weight set point; 5) universal attraction of sweet and salty; 6) adaptive wariness toward novel foods.

weight set point

Six BIOLOGICAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) hypothalamus monitoring appetite; 2) appetite hormones; 3) stomach pangs; 4) _______; 5) universal attraction of sweet and salty; 6) adaptive wariness toward novel foods.

universal attraction of sweet and salty

Six BIOLOGICAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) hypothalamus monitoring appetite; 2) appetite hormones; 3) stomach pangs; 4) weight set point; 5) _______; 6) adaptive wariness toward novel foods.

adaptive wariness toward novel foods

Six BIOLOGICAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) hypothalamus monitoring appetite; 2) appetite hormones; 3) stomach pangs; 4) weight set point; 5) universal attraction of sweet and salty; 6) _______.

sight and smell of a variety of tasty foods

Three PSYCHOLOGICAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) _______; 2) memory of time elapsed since last meal; 3) mood.

memory of time elapsed since last meal

Three PSYCHOLOGICAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) sight and smell of a variety of tasty foods; 2) _______; 3) mood.

mood

Three PSYCHOLOGICAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) sight and smell of a variety of tasty foods; 2) memory of time elapsed since last meal; 3) _______.

culturally learned taste preferences

Three SOCIO-CULTURAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) _______; 2) learned restraint in cultures idealizing thinness; 3) expected serving size.

learned restraint in cultures idealizing thinness

Three SOCIO-CULTURAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) culturally learned taste preferences; 2) _______; 3) expected serving size.

expected serving size

Three SOCIO-CULTURAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) culturally learned taste preferences; 2) learned restraint in cultures idealizing thinness; 3) _______.

Social bonds helps us to

1) protect us against predators; 2) procure food; 3) reproduce.

protect us against predators

Social bonds helps us to: 1) _______; 2) procure food; 3) reproduce.

procure food

Social bonds helps us to: 1) protect us against predators; 2) _______; 3) reproduce.

reproduce

Social bonds helps us to: 1) protect us against predators; 2) procure food; 3) _______.

wanting to belong

Elements of belongingness: 1) _______; 2) social acceptance; 3) maintaining relationships; 4) ostracism.

social acceptance

Elements of belongingness: 1) wanting to belong; 2) _______; 3) maintaining relationships; 4) ostracism.

maintaining relationships;

Elements of belongingness: 1) wanting to belong; 2) social acceptance; 3) _______ 4) ostracism

ostracism

Elements of belongingness: 1) wanting to belong; 2) social acceptance; 3) maintaining relationships; 4) _______.

social acceptance

A sense of belonging with others that increase our self esteem. Decreased by social segregation.

ostracism

Social exclusion that leads to demoralization, depression and sometimes nasty behavior.

emotion

A response of the whole organism, involving 1) physiological arousal, 2) expressive behaviors, and 3) conscious experience.

physiological activation

Emotions are a mix of: 1) ________; 2) expressive behaviors; 3) conscious experience.

expressive behaviors

Emotions are a mix of: 1) physiological activation; 2) ________; 3) conscious experience.

conscious experience

Emotions are a mix of: 1) physiological activation; 2) expressive behaviors; 3) ________.

physiological activation

Internal component of emotion; the triggering of the sympathetic nervous system.

expressive behaviors

External reaction component of emotion.

conscious experience

The cognitive component of emotion.

sympathetic nervous system

The division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.

Two Factor Theory

Theory of emotions that suggests our physiology (arousal) and cognitions create emotions.

Two Factor Theory

Theory of emotion proposed by Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer, that to experience emotion we must 1) be physically aroused and 2) cognitively label the arousal.

low

Level of arousal that produces the optimal performance on difficult tasks.

high

Level of arousal that produces the optimal performance on easy tasks.

amygdala

Part of the brain that is activated in emotions of anger and rage. Doesn't involve much processing higher in the cerebral cortex.

anger and fear

Two emotions (in alphabetical order) that are processed in the amygdale because they are linked to survival and don't need higher analysis or interpretation.

cerebral cortex

Part of the brain that processes complex emotions such as boredom, guilt, jealousy, surprise, happiness - which are less directly linked to survival than other emotions.

left

Hemisphere in which the emotion of happiness is processed.

right

Hemisphere in which the emotion of depression is processed.

cognition (appraisal)

Process that interprets arousal into an emotional response.

facial feedback effect

The tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear, anger or happiness.

priming

Activating, often unconsciously, association in our mind, thus setting us up to perceive or remember objects or events in certain ways.

Anger

The emotion that is faster to detect from a crowd of faces, through nonverbal communication: anger or happiness.

yes

Do cultures recognize the same emotions from facial expressions?

female

Sex that is better at discerning nonverbal emotions.

female

Sex that is more expressive of emotions.

adaptation-level phenomenon

Our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.

relative deprivation

The perception that we are worse off relative to those with whom we compare ourselves.

Biological influences on analysis of emotions

1) physiological arousal; 2) evolutionary adaptiveness; 3) response pathways in the brain; 4) spillover effect

physiological arousal

Biological influences on analysis of emotions: 1) _________; 2) evolutionary adaptiveness; 3) response pathways in the brain; 4) spillover effect

evolutionary adaptiveness

Biological influences on analysis of emotions: 1) physiological arousal; 2) _________; 3) response pathways in the brain; 4) spillover effect

response pathways in the brain;

Biological influences on analysis of emotions: 1) physiological arousal; 2) evolutionary adaptiveness; 3) _________; 4) spillover effect.

spillover effect

Biological influences on analysis of emotions: 1) physiological arousal; 2) evolutionary adaptiveness; 3) response pathways in the brain; 4) _________

cognitive labeling

Psychological influences on analysis of emotions: 1) _______; 2) gender differences.

gender differences

Psychological influences on analysis of emotions: 1) cognitive labeling; 2) _______.

expressiveness

Social-cultural influences on analysis of emotions: 1) _______; 2) presence of others; 3) cultural expectations.

presence of others

Social-cultural influences on analysis of emotions: 1) expressiveness; 2) _______; 3) cultural expectations.

cultural expectations

Social-cultural influences on analysis of emotions: 1) expressiveness; 2) presence of others; 3) _______.

spill over

Term for when an arousal response to one event can fuel our response to the next event.

ten emotions

Joy; anger; interest; disgust; surprise; sadness; fear, contempt, shame and guilt

joy and anger

Ten emotions: 1) _______; 2) _______; 3) interest; 4) disgust; 5) surprise; 6) sadness; 7) fear, 8) contempt, 9) shame and 10) guilt.

interest and disgust

Ten emotions: 1) joy; 2) anger; 3) _______; 4) _______; 5) surprise; 6) sadness; 7) fear, 8) contempt, 9) shame and 10) guilt.

surprise and sadness

Ten emotions: 1) joy; 2) anger; 3) interest; 4) disgust; 5) _______; 6) _______; 7) fear, 8) contempt, 9) shame and 10) guilt.

fear and contempt

Ten emotions: 1) joy; 2) anger; 3) interest; 4) disgust; 5) surprise; 6) sadness; 7) _______, 8) _______, 9) shame and 10) guilt.

shame and guilt

Ten emotions: 1) joy; 2) anger; 3) interest; 4) disgust; 5) surprise; 6) sadness; 7) fear, 8) contempt, 9) _______ and 10) _______.

contempt

Three emotions not present in infancy: 1) _______.; 2) shame; 3) guilt.

shame

Three emotions not present in infancy: 1) contempt; 2) _______.; 3) guilt.

guilt

Three emotions not present in infancy: 1) contempt; 2) shame; 3) _______..

catharsis

Emotional release, such as venting (releasing) anger through action or fantasy.

reinforcement

Expressing anger breeds more anger, is habit forming though what process?

perceive world as safer

Six effects of happiness: 1) _______; 2) make decisions more easily; 3) more cooperative; 4) live healthier, 5) more energized and 6) satisfying lives.

make decisions more easily

Six effects of happiness: 1) perceive world as safer; 2) _______; 3) more cooperative; 4) live healthier, 5) more energized and 6) satisfying lives.

more cooperative

Six effects of happiness: 1) perceive world as safer; 2) make decisions more easily; 3) _______.; 4) live healthier, 5) more energized and 6) satisfying lives.

live healthier

Six effects of happiness: 1) perceive world as safer; 2) make decisions more easily; 3) more cooperative; 4) _______., 5) more energized and 6) satisfying lives.

more energized

Six effects of happiness: 1) perceive world as safer; 2) make decisions more easily; 3) more cooperative; 4) live healthier, 5) _______. and 6) satisfying lives.

satisfying lives

Six effects of happiness: 1) perceive world as safer; 2) make decisions more easily; 3) more cooperative; 4) live healthier, 5) more energized and 6) _______..

happiness

Emotion that is associated with being more willing to help others.

positive psychology

Recent school of psychology that focuses on being grateful for what you have.

feel-good, do-good phenomenon

Our tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.

subjective well-being

The self perceived feeling of happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measure of objective well-being (such as indicators of physical well being) to evaluate our quality of life.

6 to 7

Number of hours after we wake up that our positive moods takes to rise to a maximum.

same

What is more or less the pattern of a negative mood throughout the day?

affluent

In ________societies, people with more money are happier than people who struggle for their basic needs.

balance

Over the long run, our emotional ups and downs tend to _________.

wealthier, temporarily

Many people in the West believe that if they were ________, they would be happier. However, data suggests that they would only be happy_______.

happier

People in rich countries are ________than people in poor countries.

happy, satisfied

A sudden rise in financial conditions makes people _______. However people who live in poverty or in slums are also _______ with their lives.

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