ch 2 vocab Biology

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41 terms · Prentice Hall Biology voc ch 2

atom

basic unit of matter

nucleus

center of an atom, contains protons and neutrons

electron

negatively charged subatomic particle located outside the nucleus.

element

a form of matter that contains only one kind of atom

isotope

atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei.

compound

substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions

ionic bond

formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another

ion

positively or negatively charged atom

covalent bond

bond whose electrons are shared between atoms

molecule

the smallest unit of most compounds

van der Waals forces

a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules

cohesion

an attraction between molecules of the same substance

adhesion

attraction between molecules of different substances

mixture

a material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined

solution

mixture where all components are evenly distributed

solvent

substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution

solute

substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution

suspension

mixture of water and nondissolved materials

pH scale

measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution: ranges from 0-14

acid

compound that forms hydrogen ions in solution

base

compund that produces hydroxide ions in solutions

buffer

weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp sudden changes in pH

monomer

small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers

polymer

large compound formed from combinations of many monomers

carbohydrate

key source of energy; organic compunds made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen.

monosaccharide

single sugar molecule (monomer)

polysaccharide

large macromolecule formed from monosaccharides

lipid

macromolecules made of carbon and hydrogen, fats, oils, and waxes

nucleic acid

macromolecule containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus

nucleotide

monomer of a nucleic acid made of a five-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

ribonucleic acid

(RNA) single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose

deoxyribonucleic acid

(DNA) nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose

protein

macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair, and to make enzymes

amino acid

basic building block for protein compound with an amino group (−NH2) on one end and a carboxyl group (−COOH) on the other end

chemical reaction

a process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals

reactant

the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction

product

the elements or compounds that are produced by a chemical reaction

activation energy

the energy that is needed to get a reaction started

catalyst

a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

enzyme

proteins that act as a cell's biological catalysts

substrate

The reactants of an enzyme catalyzed reaction

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