Guide to Good Food Chapter 2 Nutritional Needs

65 terms by MrsGottsch 

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Nutrient

a chemical substance in food that helps maintain the body.

Nutrition

the study of how your body uses the nutrients in the foods you eat

Malnutrition

a lack of the right proportions of nutrients over an extended period

Deficiency Disease

illness cause by the lack of a sufficient amount of a nutrient

Dietary Supplement

purified nutrients that are manufactured or extracted from natural sources

Phytochemical

compounds from plants that are active in the human body

Fortified Food

foods to which nutrients are added in amounts greater than what would naturally occur in the food

Carbohydrate

the body's chief source of energy

Glucose

the form of sugar carried in the bloodstream for energy use throughout the body

Fiber

a form of complex carbohydrates from plants that humans cannot digest

Fat

important energy sources

Fatty Acid

chemical chains that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.

Hydrogenation

adds hydrogen atoms to unsaturated fatty acids in liquid oils

Trans Fatty Acid

fatty acids with odd molecular shapes

Cholesterol

a fatlike substance found in every cell in the body

Protein

chemical compounds that are found in every body cell

Amino Acid

small units found in protein

Protein- energy Malnutrition (PEM)

a condition that occurs when your diet does not contain enough protein and calories

Vitamin

complex organic substances

Fat-Soluble Vitamin

dissolve in fats. they are carried by the fats in foods and can be stored in the fatty tissues of the body.

Water-Soluble Vitamin

dissolve in water.

Night Blindness

a reduced ability to see in dim light

Rickets

caused by vitamin D deficiences. crooked legs and misshapen breastbones

Dietary Antioxidant

substance in foods that significantly reduces the harmful effects of oxygen on normal body functions

Scurvy

A prolonged defficiency from little Vitamin C

Beriberi

a severe thiamin deficiency

Pellagra

too little niacin in the diet

Anemia

condition that reduces the number of red blood cells in the bloodstreams

Mineral

inorganic substances that make up the other 4 percent

Macromineral

minerals needed in the diet in amounts of 100 or more millegrams each day

Trace Element

minerals needed in amounts less than 100 milligrams per day

Osteoporosis

bones began to weaken by the draw on their calcium become porous and brittle

Hypertension

high blood pressure

Goiter

visible enlargement of the thyroid glands

Digestion

is the bodily process of breaking food down into simpler compounds the body can use

Absorption

is the process of taking in nutrients and making them part of the body

Peristalsis

a wave of contraction

Saliva

a mucus and enzyme-containing liquid secreted by the mouth

Metabolism

the chemical process that takes place in the cells after the body absorbs nutrients.

saturated

concerning fats and health, those fats associated strongly with heart and artery disease; mainly fats from animal sources

unsaturated fat

fat with less than the maximum number of hydrogens in one or more of its fatty acid chainsdi=

beta-carotene

an orange vegetable pigment that the body can change into the active form of vitamin a, one of the antioxidant nutrients

citrus

any of numerous fruits of the genus Citrus having thick rind and juicy pulp

dietary antioxidant

a substance in food that significantly decreases the damaging effects of reactive compounds, such as reactive forms of oxygen and nitrogen, on tissue functioning

thiamin

a B vitamin that prevents beriberi

riboflavin

a B vitamin that prevents skin lesions and weight loss

niacin

a B vitamin essential for the normal function of the nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract

fasting

going without food for a period of time

vegetarians

people who omit meat, fish, and poultry from their diets. Some vegetarians also omit milk products and eggs.

pantothenic acid

a vitamin of the vitamin B complex that performs an important role in the oxidation of fats and carbohydrates and certain amino acids

minerals

Substances that the body cannot manufacture but that are needed for forming healthy bones and teeth and regulating many vital body processes

trace elements

elements or minerals needed in very small amounts

osteoporosis

abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium

phosphorus

a multivalent nonmetallic element of the nitrogen family that occurs commonly in inorganic phosphate rocks and as organic phosphates in all living cells

magnesium

a light silver-white ductile bivalent metallic element

osmosis

diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal

hemoglobin

iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells

enzymes

protein substances that speed up chemical reactions.

thyroid

located near the base of the neck

decay

the organic phenomenon of rotting

water

a fluid necessary for the life of most animals and plants

digestion

the organic process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed into the body

peristalsis

the process of wave-like muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along

villi

Tiny finger-shaped structures that cover the inner surface of the small intestine and provide a large surface area through which digested food is absorbed

metabolism

set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes

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