Apologia Biology 2nd Ed. Module 6 part 1 of 2

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Apologia Biology 2nd Ed. Module 6 part 1 of 2

absorption

the transport of dissolved substances into cells

digestion

the breakdown of absorbed substances

respiration

the breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy

excretion

the removal of soluble waste materials

egestion

the removal of nonsoluble waste materials

secretion

the release of biosynthesized substances

homeostasis

maintaining the status quo

reproduction

producing more cells

cytology

the study of cells

cell wall

a rigid structure on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells

middle lamella

the thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells

plasma membrane

the semipermeable membrane between the cell contents and either the cell wall or the cell's surroundings

cytoplasm

a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended

ions

substances in which at least one atom has an imbalance of protons and electrons

cytoplasmic streaming

the motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell's contents

mitochondria

the organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy

lysosome

the organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids

ribosomes

non-membrane-bound organelles responsible for protein synthesis

endoplasmic reticulum

an organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes that performs several tasks within a cell

rough ER

ER that is dotted with ribosomes

smooth ER

ER that has no ribosomes

golgi bodies

the organelles in which proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell

Leucoplasts

organelles that store starches or oils

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