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Chapter 4

You have isolated a cell with a peptidoglycan cell wall. What other structure can you safely assume the cell has?

a plasma membrane

You are observing a Gram stain of rectangular-shaped microorganisms that are linked in a chain and stain purple. How would you describe these bacteria using the correct terminology for the cell shape and arrangement?

gram-positive streptobacilli

A Gram stain of a wound reveals purple, spherical-shaped bacteria that divide and remain attached in grapelike clusters. These are referred to as __________.

gram-positive staphylococci

Do gram-negative cell walls contain teichoic acid?

No

What processes uses membrane proteins that act as channels or carriers allowing ions or large molecules to move across the plasma membrane without using energy?

Facilitated Diffusion

Which bacterial structure is necessary for chemotaxis?

Flagella

How many endospores does a bacteria cell make?

One

What packages and secretes proteins within a cell?

The Golgi Complex

What creates a slimy, slippery coating that prevents bacteria from attaching to surfaces?

Glycocalyces

Do animal cells contain cell walls?

No

Spirochetes and spirilla are both spiral-shaped bacteria. However, they differ in that spirochetes have __________ and spirilla do not.

endoflagella

Which type of cell's DNA is not enclosed within a membrane?

Prokaryotes

Which type of cell's DNA is associated with histones?

Eukaryotes

Which type of cell has membrane enclosed organelles?

Eukaryotes

Which type of cell has a cell wall that almost always contains peptidoglycan?

Prokaryotes

Which type of cell divides by binary fission?

Prokaryotes

Which type of cell has a nucleus?

Eukaryotes

Which type of cell has DNA that is made up of multiple chromosomes?

Eukaryotes

Is Bacteria prokaryotic or eukaryotic?

Prokaryotes

Is Archae prokaryotic or eukaryotic?

Prokaryotes

Is fungi prokaryotic or eukaryotic?

eukaryotic

Is protozoa prokaryotic or eukaryotic?

eukaryotic

Is algae prokaryotic or eukaryotic?

eukaryotic

Which bacteria shape is spherical?

coccus/cocci

Which bacteria cell shape is rod shaped?

bacillus/bacilli

Which bacteria cell shape is spiral

vibrious

Bacteria cells arranged in pairs are labeled what?

Diplo

Bacteria cells arranged in chains are labeled what?

Strepto

Bacteria cells arranged in clusters are labeled what?

staphlo

What is a Sugar coating that is firmly attached to the cell wall of a bacteria cell?

A capsule

What is a Sugar coating that is loosely attached to the cell wall of a bacteria cell?

Slime layer

How do bacteria cells move?

Flagella

What is the movement of bacteria cells from a stimulus called?

taxis

Taxis in response to chemicals is called what?

Chemotaxis

Taxis in response to sunlight is called what?

phototaxis

Bacteria without flagella are called what?

atrichous

Which type of bacteria cell moves in a corkscrew manner?

spirochetes

What type of cell structure is used by gram negative bacteria cells to adhere to surfaces?

fimbriae

What type of cell structure is used by gram negative bacteria cells to transfer DNA from one cell to another?

Pilli

What is conjugation?

The transfer of genetic information through pilli

What is the major function of the cell wall?

To protect the cell from rupturing when the water pressure inside the cell is greater than that outside the cell

Do gram-positive or gram-negative cell walls have many layers or peptidoglycan?

Gram positive

Which type of cell wall contains teichoic acids, gram positive or negative?

Positive

What makes it possible for teichoic acids to be identified through lab tests?

teichoic acids

Which type of cell wall contains a cell membrane, gram positive or negative?

Gram negative

Which genus of bacteria lack cell walls completely?

Mycoplasm

Which type of bacteria does not react to the gram staining test?

mycobacteria

Which type of bacteria can only be identified with the acid fast test? Why?

mycobacteria, because of its high concentration of mycolic acid

Which part of bacteria cells is most targeted by antimicrobial drugs?

The cell wall

Which enzyme is used to damage the cell walls of many gram positive bacteria?

lysosozyme

Which type of bacteria has atypical cell walls?

mycobacteria

Which type of cell is made up of Gram-negative cell lipopolysaccharides, gram positive or gram negative?

Gram negative

Which type of cell is made up of Gram-negative cell teichoic acids, gram positive or gram negative?

Gram Positive

Do gram positive bacteria have cell membranes?

No

What is the phopholipid bilayer with peripheral and integral proteins that encloses the cytoplasm of a prokaryotic cell called?

plasma membrane

Do prokaryotes have organelles?

No

The dynamic arrangement of the phospholipids and proteins within the plasma membrane is referred to as the ______.

fluid mosaic model

Where within a cell is the bacteria chromosome found?

The nucleiod

What are the small circular extrachromosomal genetic elements of bacteria called?

plasmids

What controls protein synthesis within a cell? Where is it found?

Ribosomes, cytoplasm

What are inclusions?

Specific storage areas of a cell

What are are highly resistant bodies formed by certain gram-positive bacteria called?

Endospores

Which genus of bacteria can cause gangrene, tetanus, botulism, and food poisoning?

Clostridum

Which genus of bacteria can cause anthrax?

Bacillus

What is passive diffusion?

When molecules are allowed to pass through a cell's membrane freely

Which type of molecules cannot undergo passive diffusion?

Charged and large molecules

What type of molecules tend to get stuck within a cell's membrane? Why?

Hydrophobic molecules, because the cell membrane is hydrophobic

Which type of transport across the cytoplasmic membrane requires a transport protein?

Active transport

Which type of transport across the cytoplasmic membrane requires the use of ATP?

Active transport

Which type of cytoplasmic membrane protein can act as enzymes or receptors?

Peripheral

The Phospholipid tail located within the cytoplasmic membrane is ______?

Hydrophobic

Are peripheral proteins used for the transport of molecules?

No

Diffusion is an example of which type of molecule transport?

Passive Transport

Osmosis is an example of which type of molecule transport?

Passive Transport

What is diffusion?

The movement of a molecule from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

What type of molecules can undergo diffusion?

Dissolved oxygen, dissolved carbon dioxide, small alcohols, and small fatty acids

What is osmosis?

The diffusion of water

Which type of cell has a cell membrane, gram positive or gram negative?

Gram negative

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