(570-632) Muslims believe that Muhammad was the last of the prohpets of god, such as abraham, moses, and jesus
after the death of muhammad, the muslim community was led by four contemporaries of muhammad (Abu bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali)
cousin and son-in law of muhammad, he is considered by shi`ite to have been the proper successor to muhammad
(1058-1111) a leading intellectual who became a sufi convert. He challenged the independence of philosophy emphasizing the need of revelation
(661-750) the first muslim empire, which lasted for 90 years. It arose, after the death of the fourth `rightly - guided` caliph
(750-1258) the 500-year Muslim empire that overthrew the umayyads. Its capital was bagdad. Led by descendents of Muhammad`s uncle al-Abbas
(909-1171) a shiite dynasty in egypt, claiming descent from muhammad's daughter fatima
(1206-1481) Largest world empire prior to the Soviet Union. Rapidly expanded in the 1200s, overthrowing most nations from the pacific to the Danube, including Abbasid Empire.
(1300-1922) the Turkish-based empire. It captured constantinople in 1453, and for 1500's and 1600's was the world's leading empire
the more traditional form, making up about 85% of Islam. They consider that valid leadership of islam lies in a caliph of muhhammad's tribe
("party") the largest minority, they maintain that valid leadership lies in the imam, a direct descendant of muhammad, through his daughter fatima and her husband ali.
("seveners")a shiite group, which disagrees with other shiites about who should have become the seventh imam
("to go out, leave") Early supporters of Ali, who withdrew their loyalty when Ali agreed to submit his leadership claim to arbitration
Mystical movement of islam. their name comes from the plain woolen garment they wore. One well-known group of Sufis are the Whirling Dervishes. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GJIofU-0jC0)
a puritanical sunni reform movement founded in 1746. They opposed Sufi interest in saints and rejected as heresy previously accepted interpretations of Islam.
a shiite movement that follows their own fifth imam. Zayd
crescent and star
The most recognized symbol of Islam in the modern world, not an official symbol. Borrowed from christian Constantinople by the conquering Ottomans.
("God is Greatest") the audible symbol of islam. pronounced in dailiy prayers but also on numerous other occasions
the scarf or head covering worn by most muslim women
in purpose, like the kosher labels used by Jews. An "M" is enclosed in a circle with a crescent
the tower of a mosque from which the call to prayer is made five times each day
used by muslims at prayer. The mat is designed to be pointed in the direction of Mecca
prayer beads / rosary
string of ______ consists of one hundred beads, divided into 3 sections. Used for the ninety-nine names of God.
the color green
Muhammad's fav. color (the color of his turban) and is often the color of flags of muslim nations. Also, garments to be worn in paradise are said to be green.
When Islam discouraged pictorial art, handwriting became an art, feat. words from the Quran.
("The Opening") First Surah of Quran is used as a common prayer by Muslims, being repeated at least seventeen times a day.
the pre-islamic center of trade and religion for arabs, which muhammad reformed into a center of monotheism
Muhammad established his first Islamic government there after fleeing from Mecca
the third most holy city of Islam. Muslims believe that it was here that abraham offered ishmael as a sacrafice and that muhammad ascended to heaven
("cube") a pre-islamic cubed building in mecca believed by muslims to have been built by Abraham. It is the center of the Muslim Pilgrimage
Mosque built in the 1600s in the heart of Istanbul, represents high point of Ottoman achievement.
("place of prostration") the center of muslim community and religious life. Its most distinctive arch, feature is the minaret (tower) from which the call to prayer is made
beautiful mausoleum at Agra built by the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan (completed in 1649) in memory of his favorite wife
("recitation") The Islamic Scripture, consisting of 114 Chapters of material that muhammad recorded during twenty-three years of religious experiences.
the revival of the religious science
A book by Al-Ghazali, helped to renew Islam by emphasizing the necessity of religious experience.
thousand and one nights
Also known as the Arabian Nights. Vast collection of stories about life and fantasy in medieval Islam. (Aladdin and his magic lamp)
the five pillars
Five main duties of a muslim 1. confession (only one god) 2. prayer or worship (five times a day) 3. Alms (to the poor) 4. Fasting (during the month of Ramadan) 5. Pilgrimage (to Mecca)
("making a partner") the most dangerous offence in islam is to associate other gods with the one god
new year's day
Celebrates the flight (hijra) of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 C.E. Marks the beginning of Muslim calender.
(Mawlid) Celebration of Muhammad's Birthday DUHHH
(Miraj) Celebration of Muhammad's journey (ascension) to heaven from Jerusalem.
night of power
the celebration of the beginning of the revlatory experiences of muhammad as he received the Qur'an
"The Festival of Fast Breaking" or the "Small Feast". 2 or 3 day event marking the end of the month-long fast of Ramadan.
"The Feast of the Sacrifice"or the "Great Feast". It marks the end of the pilgrimage to Mecca. Muslims offer a sacrifice on this occasion, commemorating Abraham's "sacrifice" of Ishmael.
friday noon prayer
although muslim do not have a holy day of the week, such as the Jewish Sabbath or the christian sunday, Muslim try to attend friday noon prayers in the mosque
creed / profession of faith (shahadah)
("bearing witness") The confession that there is only one God, and Muhammad is the Prophet of God. Confessing this makes one a muslim.
ritual prayer offered at five specific times of the day: dawn, noon, afternoon, evening, and twilight. Muslims pray facing mecca.
a tax on possessions and various levels of taxes in agriculture produce. the tax is used for poor relief and religious purposes, such as education and building of mosques
For the entire month of Ramadan, Muslims fast from dawn to dusk. Few exceptions allowed (i.e. pregnant women). Fast prohibits food, drink, and sexual relations.
Muslims are expected to journey to Mecca in one's lifetime. The pilgrimage occurs over a six-day period in the last month of the year, and involves a complex set of rituals around Mecca
practices vary, but male children are cicumcised from four years old or older
journey to a sacred place, done as a religious act
("successor") the leader of the islamic community after muhammad. They were not considered divinely inspired indivduals for muhammad was the last prophet
the succession of caliphs, leaders of sunni islam. The instution was terminated by the Turkish Republic in 1922. Attempts to revive was unsuccesful
("he who stands before") the leader of shiite community, in contrast to the caliph of the sunnis.
in shiite tradition, the hidden imam who will return at the end of the world
("sign of Allah") in shiite tradition, a few very pious and learned men have the authority of the Imam
("poor") Derived from the Persian "Darwish." Translation of the Arabic "fakir"
a scholar of one of the schools of laws in the sunni tradition
("crier") one who formally calls muslims to prayer five times daily from the minaret
("ruler") First used for semi-autonomous rulers under the Abbasids. Later became a term for ruler of many Islamic states.
("the Abode of Islam") those lands in which islam is dominant and muslim law prevails
("protected persons") In Islamic countries, Jews and Christians are permitted to practice their religion as dhimmis, after paying a special tax
a legal opinion by a qualified jurist, clarifying a disputed point of law. In practice, a fatwa is treated as having force of law
("surrender") the term for the religion of Muslims
("struggle") The personal struggle of a Muslim in the way of piety, or the militant struggle to defend and extend Islam. Commonly called "Holy War"
("one who surrenders") The term for an adherent to Islam
The letters of the consonantal root upon which the word ISLAM and MUSLIM is built. This is the same semitic root upon which the word "peace" (shalom) is built. Its primary meaning for Muslims is "surrender"
The people; the community. Used by Muslims to identify the community of Islam, ideally undivided, although from the earliest days of ummah has been split.
tribe that controlled mecca
Medina; the city in which Muhammad and his followers went for safety/refuge when they were removed from Mecca. This event is referred to as Hijra (emigration)
attempted to establish a new religion based on elements of various religions
chapter (of Quran)
(1526-1857) Muslim empire in India. Persian form of the word "Mongol"