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BIOENERGETICS

converting food into energy

ENERGY SOURCES

carbs, fats, proteins

Carb

Made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, galactose

disaccharides

Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose

polysaccharides

starch, glycogen, cellulose

glycognenisis

formation of glycogen from glucose

glycogenolysis

breaking down of glycogen into glucose

fatty acids

-even number of 4 to 24 carbon atoms bound in chain
-saturated, monosaturated, polysaturated

Triglyceride

-form on fatty acids stored in fat cells

-glycrol molecule plus 3 fatty acids

PROTEINS

-Found in both animals and plants

-composed of amino acids

-20 amino acids

ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS (9)

-must be ingested in food; canot be synthesized

NONESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS (11)

-CAN BE SYNTHESIZED BY THE BODY

ENZYMES

-protein molecules that facilitate a chemical reaction

-lower energy necessary for reaction to take place

-facilitate and increase speed of reaction

catabolic reaction

breaking down of substrate into molecules

anabolic reaction

forming of product from molecules

factors affecting speed of facilitation:

temperature, acidity, need for coenzymes

METABOLISM

sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body

Aerobic metabolism

-oxygen required
-generates energy, CO2, and water
- used at rest, during long-duration, lower intensity activity
-examples.....
- cycling and distance running
- most commonly involves carbohydrate and fat
-can involve protein

Anaerobic metabolism

-no oxygen required
-generates energy, CO2, and lactid acid
-lactic acid decreases production of useful energy, diminishing intensity or speed of activity
- energy is made available quickly to muscle
-major energy source during high-intensity, short duration activity
-only uses carbohydrate

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