Biology A & P II ; HW, Quizzes & Tests questions

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Endocrine cells __________.

1. secrete into extracellular fluid
2. contain secretory vesicles
3. perform intercellular communication
4. Endocrine cells have all of these characteristics

Endocrine cells have all of these characteristics

Peptide hormones ___________.

1. always contain one sugar molecule
2. are lipid soluble
3. usually bind to intranuclear receptors
4. are composed of amino acids

Are composed of amino acids

Which of these is released by the neurohypophysis?

1. ACTH
2. TSH
3. FSH
4. ADH

ADH (anti-diuretic hormone)
released in response to a decrease in blood volume, an increase in the osmotic concentration of the plasma or presence of angiotensin II

Which gland is named for a nearby prominent cartilage?

1. adrenal
2. salivary
3. thyroid
4. pituitary

Thyroid

__________ elevates blood calcium ion levels.

1. Estrogen
2. Thyroid hormone
3. Parathyroid hormone
4. Calcitonin

Parathyroid hormone

Which hormone stimulates the adrenal gland?

1. ADH
2. TSH
3. ACTH
4. All of these hormones stimulate the adrenal gland.

ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)

The __________ gland secretes melatonin.

1. pineal
2. pituitary
3. neurohypophysis
4. thymus

Pineal

Which cells are correctly matched to the hormones they produce?

1. beta cells; glucagon
2. alpha cells; insulin
3. acinar cells; insulin
4. beta cells; insulin

Beta cells ; Insulin

Which of these regulatory substances does the kidney NOT secrete?

1. renin
2. calcitriol
3. angiotensin
4. erythropoietin

Angiotensin

Which of these hormones is required for normal growth?

1. growth hormone
2. insulin
3. thyroid hormone
4. All of these hormones are required for normal growth.

ALL of these hormones are required for normal growth.

Which of these might result from excessive parathyroid hormone release?

1. elevated blood calcium
2. increased loss of bone minerals
3. osteopenia
4. All of these might result from excessive parathyroid hormone release.

ALL of these might result from excessive parathyroid hormone release.

Which of these statements about the pineal gland is FALSE?

1. It receives inputs from the retina.
2. It produces melatonin.
3. It is controlled by adenohypophysis.
4. It promotes sleep.

It is controlled by adenohypophysis.

Hormones often interact in an integrative way. Examples of this include all of the following EXCEPT __________.

1. resistance to stress
2. lowering blood sugar by insulin
3. regulation of reproduction
4. regulation of growth

Lowering blood sugar by insulin

What hormones are produced by the Hypothalamus?

ADH, oxytocin and regulartory hormones
* Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
* Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
* Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
* Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
* Somatostatin
* Dopamine

What hormones are produced by the Pituitary Gland?

Adenohypophsis (anterior lobe):
ACTH, TSH, GH, PRL, FSH, LH, and MSH.
Neurohypophysis (posterior lobe): release of oxytocin and ADH

What hormones are produced by the Pineal Gland?

Melatonin

What hormones are produced by the Parathyroid Glands on posterior surface of thyroid gland?

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

What hormones are produced by the Heart?

Natriuretic peptides:
-Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
-Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)

What hormones are produced by the Thyroid Gland?

Thyroxine (T4) (aka tetraiodothyronine)
Triiodothronine (T3)
Calcitonin (CT)

What hormones are produced by the Thymus (undergoes atrophy during adulthood)?

Thymosins

What hormones are produced by the Suprarenal Glands?

Each superanel gland is subdivided into:

Supraenal medulla:
- Epinephrine (E) 75% +/-
- Norepinephrine (NE) 25% +/-

Suprarenal cortex:
- Cortisol, Corticosterone,
- Aldosterone, Androgens and dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEA).
Glucocoids are essential for life, they are produced by the adrenal cortex. The main Glucocoids is cortisol.

What hormones are produced by the Kidney?

Erythropoietin (EPO)
Calcitriol
renin

What hormones are produced by the Adipose Tissue?

Leptin

What hormones are produced by the digestive Tract?

Numerous hormones
(in Chapter 25) Digestive enzymes are enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks

What hormones are produced by the Pancreatic Islets (islets of Langerhans)?

Alpha Cells - Glucagon
Beta Cells - Insulin
Delta Cells - Somatostatin
Gamma cells - secrete pancreatic polypeptide

What horomes do Delta Cells secrete? What does this hormone do?

secretes/produces Somatostatin

---inhibits the secretion of glucagon and insulin
---keeps blood sugar level as is

What hormone do beta cells secrete? What does this hormone do?

secretes Insulin

---converts glucose to glycogen

What do the alpha cells secrete? what does this hormone do?

Secrete Glucagon

---converts glycogen into glucose

Compared the endocrine system, the nervous system is __________.

1. more localized in action
2. more rapidly acting
3. briefer in action
4. Compared to the endocrine system, the nervous system has all of these characteristics.

Compared to the endocrine system, the nervous system has all of these characteristics.

In paracrine communication a chemical signal acts within the tissue that produced it;
in endocrine communication the signal reaches the target cells by way of the circulation.

Are these two statements true or FALSE?

1. Both statements are true.
2. The first is false; the second is true.
3. Both statements are false.
4. The first is true; the second is false.

Both statements are true.

Lipid-soluble hormones usually bind to __________ receptors.

1. G-protein coupled
2. extracellular
3. transmembrane
4. intranuclear

Intranuclear

Which of these hormones is NOT derived from an amino acid?

1. thyroid hormone
2. epinephrine
3. parathyroid hormone
4. norepinephrine

parathyroid hormone

The brain region that exerts the most direct effects on the endocrine system is the __________.

1. mesencephalon
2. thalamus
3. pons
4. hypothalamus

hypothalamus

Which of these hormones exerts a strong effect on adrenal steroid production?

1. ACTH
2. TSH
3. LH
4. ADH

ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)

Which of these signs is often seen in patients suffering from hyperthyroid disease?

1. elevated heart rate
2. elevated body temperature
3. elevated oxygen utilization
4. Patients with hyperthyroidism often exhibit all of these signs.

Patients with hyperthyroidism often exhibit ALL of these signs.

Which chemical element is necessary to make thyroid hormone?

1. thorium
2. iron
3. calcium
4. iodine

Iodine

Which of these statements about the parathyroid gland is FALSE?

1. The hormone release is triggered by a rise in blood calcium.
2. They secrete a peptide hormone.
3. It is posterior to thyroid.
4. There are usually four glands.

The hormone release is triggered by a rise in blood calcium.

Which of these might result from excessive parathyroid hormone release?

1. elevated blood calcium
2. increased loss of bone minerals
3. osteopenia
4. All of these might result from excessive parathyroid hormone release.

ALL of these might result from excessive parathyroid hormone release.

Which of these is mismatched?

1. adrenal medulla; epinephrine
2. zona fasciculate; cortisol
3. zone reticularis; norepinephrine
4. zona glomerulosa; aldosteron

zone reticularis; norepinephrine

Excessive secretion by the adrenal medulla can lead to all of these changes EXCEPT __________.

1. elevated heart rate
2. drowsiness
3. elevated blood glucose level
4. elevated blood pressure

drowsiness

Melatonin is secreted by __________.

1. pinealocytes
2. pituicytes
3. ovaries and testes
4. keratinocytes

pinealocytes

Which of these statements about the pineal gland is FALSE?

1. It receives inputs from the retina.
2. It promotes sleep.
3. It produces melatonin.
4. It is controlled by adenohypophysis.

It is controlled by adenohypophysis.

A rise in blood glucose level will trigger all these responses EXCEPT __________.

1. storage of glycogen
2. storage of triglycerides
3. increased epinephrine secretion
4. increased beta cell secretion

increased epinephrine secretion

Which of these is NOT produced by pancreatic islet cells?

1. somatostatin
2. digestive enzymes
3. glucagon
4. insulin

digestive enzymes

Which of these is NOT a steroid hormone produced by the gonads?

1. estradiol
2. cortisol
3. progesterone
4. testosterone

cortisol

Adipose cells produce a hormone called ___ that acts on the brain to reduce food intake.

1. leptin
2. insulin
3. adipin
4. renin

leptin

Hormones often interact in an integrative way. Examples of this include all of the following EXCEPT __________.

1. regulation of reproduction
2. lowering blood sugar by insulin
3. resistance to stress
4. regulation of growth

lowering blood sugar by insulin

Which of these statements about the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome is NOT true?

1. It precedes the exhaustion phase.
2. The dominant hormones are
glucocorticoids.
3. It follows the alarm phase.
4. The dominant hormone is epinephrine.

The dominant hormone is epinephrine

Which hormone stimulates the adrenal gland?

1. TSH
2. ACTH
3. ADH
4. All of these hormones stimulate the adrenal gland

ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)

Which of these regulatory substances does the kidney NOT secrete?

1. erythropoietin
2. angiotensin
3. calcitriol
4. renin

angiotensin

Plasma makes up approximately what percentage of whole blood?

1. 55%
2. 65%
3. 45%
4. 38%

55% (46% - 63%)

Serum can't coagulate because the ______ has been removed.

1. albumin
2. protein C
3. immunoglobulin
4. fibrinogen

fibrinogen

The formed elements are largely produced within the __________.

1. liver
2. spleen
3. red bone marrow
4. thymus

red bone marrow

___ stimulates production of red blood cells.

1. calcitriol
2. erythropoietin
3. thymosin
4. renin

erythropoietin

Which of these is NOT a surface antigen found on red blood cells?

1. O
2. B
3. A
4. Rh

O

The largest white blood cell in circulation is the ____.

1. monocyte
2. eosinophil
3. neutrophil
4. lymphocyte

monocyte

Granulocytes are produced in _______.

1. the lymph nodes
2. white bone marrow
3. red bone marrow
4. the liver and spleen

red bone marrow

Megakaryocytes are the source of _______.

1. most WBCs
2. neutrophils
3. platelets
4. RBCs

platelets

Which of these phases is NOT part of hemostasis?

1. vascular phase
2. platelet phase
3. erythropoiesis phase
4. coagulation phase

erythropoiesis phase

The complex process that leads to the formation of fibrin from fibrinogen is called ______.

1. syneresis
2. fibrinogenesis
3. platelet adhesion
4. coagulation

coagulation

Which of these organs is NOT found in the mediastinum?

1. esophagus
2. trachea
3. lung
4. pericardial sac

lung

Blood flowing in the vena cava will next enter the ____.

1. right ventricle
2. left ventricle
3. right atrium
4. left atrium

right atrium

Cardiac veins empty their blood into the __________.

1. left atrium
2. right atrium
3. left ventricle
4. right ventricle

right atrium

During the plateau phase of the cardiac action potential, which ion is entering the cardiac muscle cell?

1. potassium
2. calcium
3. sodium
4. hydrogen

calcium

Which wave is the largest in the electrocardiogram?

1. P
2. R
3. Q
4. S

R

The conducting system in the heart begins in the ____.

1. AV bundle
2. AV node
3. Purkinje fibers
4. SA node

SA node

Ventricular systole begins with the __________.

1. closing of the aortic valve
2. opening of the mitral valve
3. opening of the aortic valve
4. closing of the mitral valve

closing of the mitral valve
[ventricular systole = the contraction of the heart ventricles. It begins with the first heart sound]

The wall of the left ventricle is thicker than the right; the left ventricle pumps more blood than the right. Are these two statements true or false?

1. The first is false; the second is true.
2. Both statements are true.
3. The first is true; the second is false.
4. Both statements are false.

The first is true; the second is false.

Which of these is NOT needed to determine cardiac output?

1. heart rate
2. end systolic volume
3. blood pressure
4. end diastolic volume

blood pressure

Which of these responses by the heart will sympathetic stimulation NOT cause?

1. increased end-systolic volume
2. increased heart rate
3. increased cardiac output
4. increased stroke volume

increased end-systolic volume

The only vessels whose walls are thin enough to exchange with the surrounding cells are _____.

1. capillaries
2. arterioles
3. tunica intima
4. arteries

capillaries

Which of these helps move blood around the systemic system?

1. right ventricle
2. smooth muscle in the tunica media
3. arterial pressure greater than venous pressure
4. venous pressure greater than arterial pressure

arterial pressure greater than venous pressure

Elevated capillary hydrostatic pressure ____.

1. raises arterial pressure
2. lowers heart rate
3. raises heart rate
4. forces more fluid across the endothelium

forces more fluid across the endothelium

Which brain region contains the cardiovascular centers?

1. hypothalamus
2. pons
3. medulla oblongata
4. thalamus

medulla oblongata

Hemorrhage triggers all of these responses EXCEPT __________.


1. release of the venous reserve
2. an increase in urine production
3. an increase in heart rate
4. an increase in erythropoiesis

an increase in urine production

The pulmonary trunk carries ___________ blood __________ the lung.

1. oxygenated; from
2. oxygenated; to
3. deoxygenated; to
4. deoxygenated; from

deoxygenated; to

Which of these arteries does NOT originate on the aortic arch?

1. left subclavian
2. left carotid
3. brachiocephalic
4. coronary

coronary

Which of these arteries does NOT originate on the abdominal aorta?

1. iliac
2. femoral
3. splenic
4. renal

femoral

The remnant of the fetal ductus arteriosus is the _____.


1. fossa ovalis
2. foramen ovale
3. umbilical strand
4. ligamentum arteriosum

ligamentum arteriosum

All of these changes in the cardiovascular system are commonly seen in aging EXCEPT _______.

1. decrease in hematocrit
2. decrease in arterial wall stiffness
3. decrease in cardiac output
4. decrease in valve efficiency

decrease in arterial wall stiffness

In the case of hemorrhage, the body mobilizes all these defenses EXCEPT _________.

1. increased peripheral resistance
2. increased heart rate
3. decreased ADH secretion
4. increased thirst

decreased ADH secretion

The cardiovascular centers in the medulla oblongata control __________.

1. heart rate
2. cardiac contractility
3. peripheral resistance
4. All of these are controlled by the cardiovascular centers in the medulla oblongata.

ALL OF THESE are controlled by the cardiovascular centers in the medulla oblongata.

Most of the plasma proteins required in the coagulation process are produced by __________.


1. the liver
2. lymph nodes
3. platelets
4. megakaryocytes

the liver

If a patient has thrombocytopenia, the best therapy is infusion of __________.

1. plasma
2. packed RBCs
3. whole blood
4. purified platelets

purified platelets

The duration of the ventricular action potential is approximately equal to the __________ interval in the electrocardiogram.

1. QRS duration
2. Q-T interval
3. PR interval
4. ST interval

Q-T interval

The conducting system in the heart begins in the __________.

1. Purkinje fibers
2. AV node
3. SA node
4. AV bundle

SA node

Blood returning to the heart from the pulmonary circuit first enters the __________.

1. right atrium
2. pulmonary valve
3. pulmonary trunk
4. left atrium

left atrium

The volume of blood remaining in the ventricle as diastole begins is called the __________.

1. stroke volume
2. cardiac reserve
3. end-systolic volume
4. end-diastolic volume

end-systolic volume

The brachial artery branches to form the ulnar and __________ arteries.

1. axillary
2. digital
3. palmar
4. radial

radial

An important function of thrombocytes is to __________.

1. transport clotting factors
2. transport thrombopoietin
3. transport nutrients
4. transport blood gases

transport clotting factors

The only vessels whose walls are thin enough to exchange with the surrounding cells are __________.


1. capillaries
2. tunica intima
3. arteries
4. arterioles

capillaries

The __________ valve prevents backward flow of blood into the left ventricle.

1. bicuspid
2. aortic
3. tricuspid
4. pulmonic

aortic

Vasomotion refers to contraction-relaxation cycles of the __________.

1. precapillary sphincters
2. thoroughfare channels
3. arteriovenous anastomoses
4. venules

precapillary sphincters

Which of these statements about basophils is NOT true?

1. They promote inflammation.
2. They are cytoplasmic granules.
3. They are abundant.
4. They release histamine.

They are abundant

Which of these arteries does NOT branch directly from the aorta?


1. left coronary artery
2. left carotid artery
3. femoral arteries
4. right coronary artery

femoral arteries

The most abundant protein in blood is __________.

1. hemoglobin
2. albumin
3. fibrinogen
4. immunoglobulin

hemoglobin

The formed elements of blood consist of _________.


1. red blood cells
2. platelets
3. white blood cells
4. All of these are formed elements of blood.

All of these are formed elements of blood.

The common pathway in coagulation ends with __________.

1. conversion of soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin
2. release of PF-3
3. positive feedback of thrombin formation
4. adhesion of platelets to a damaged vessel wall

conversion of soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin

Which organ produces renin and erythropoietin to help maintain normal blood pressure and hematocrit?


1. brain
2. kidney
3. liver
4. adrenal

kidney

The agranular leukocyte (agranulocyte) that is capable of phagocytosis is the __________.

1. neutrophil
2. monocyte
3. lymphocyte
4. eosinophil

monocyte

The epicardium is also known as the __________.

1. visceral pericardium
2. myocardium
3. endocardium
4. parietal pericardium

visceral pericardium

The pulmonary veins carry __________ blood to the __________ atrium.

1. deoxygenated; left
2. deoxygenated; right
3. oxygenated; left
4. oxygenated; right

oxygenated; left

During fibrinolysis __________.

1. clots slowly dissolve
2. fibrinogen is activated
3. damaged tissue is pulled together
4. emboli form

clots slowly dissolve

Arteries have a tissue in their middle and internal vessel walls that veins lack, called __________ tissue.

1. elastic
2. smooth muscle
3. endothelial
4. adventitial

elastic

The white blood cell type that most rapidly increases in number after a bacterial infection is the __________.

1. lymphocytes
2. eosinophils
3. neutrophils
4. monocytes

neutrophils

EXCEPT for __________, the following statements about blood are true.

1. It contains about 55% plasma.
2. The viscosity is three to five times greater than water.
3. It contains dissolved gases.
4. The pH is slightly acidic.

The pH is slightly acidic.

A person with a type A positive blood type can safely receive blood from all of these donors EXCEPT __________.

1. B positive
2. O positive
3. A negative
4. A positive

B positive

EXCEPT for the amount of __________, plasma and interstitial fluid differ little in composition.

1. protein
2. glucose
3. sodium ion
4. water

protein

The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood in the adult circulation; the umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood in the fetal circulation. Are these two statements true or false?

1. The first statement is false; the second is true.
2. Both statements are true.
3. The first statement is true; the second is false.
4. Both statements are false.

Both statements are true.

Peripheral resistance depends on all of the following factors EXCEPT __________.


1. blood viscosity
2. blood vessel diameter
3. blood vessel length
4. blood colloid osmotic pressure

blood colloid osmotic pressure

Reticulocyte is a stage in the development of __________.

1. lymphocytes
2. megakaryocytes
3. red blood cells
4. neutrophil

red blood cells

As the heart ages, which of these changes is NOT normally seen?

1. decreased cardiac output
2. coronary arteriosclerosis
3. decreased ejection fraction
4. increased elasticity of the fibrous skeleton

increased elasticity of the fibrous skeleton

Red blood cells (RBCs) are removed from the circulation after about __________.

1. 1 year
2. 1 day
3. 120 days
4. 30 days

120 days

Heart rate is controlled by __________.

1.the phrenic nerves
2. both the right vagus and sympathetic nerves
3. sympathetic nerves in the cardiac plexus
4. the right vagus nerve

both the right vagus and sympathetic nerves

Which cell type is essential to the immune response?

1. monocytes
2. keratinocytes
3. lymphocytes
4. fibrocytes

lymphocytes

The composition of lymph is most similar to __________.
Select all that apply:

1. gastric juice
2. blood
3. plasma
4. interstitial fluid

plasma
interstitial fluid

All of these types of cells are lymphocytes EXCEPT ___________.


1. NK
2. Y2K
3. B
4. T

Y2K

Which of these defense cells are NOT phagocytic?


1. lymphocytes
2. neutrophils
3. macrophages
4. eosinophils

lymphocytes

Which of these is NOT a property of the immune response?

1. It may be cell-mediated.
2. It must be acquired.
3. It is triggered by an antigen.
4. It may be antibody-mediated.

It must be acquired

Which defense cells can specifically identify and directly kill disease cells?

1. suppressor T lymphocytes
2. cytotoxic T lymphocytes
3. plasma cells
4. B lymphocytes

cytotoxic T lymphocytes

Which defense cells secretes lymphokines that regulate immunity?

1. helper T cells
2. CD8 cells
3. memory T cells
4. B lymphocytes

helper T cells

B cells are __________.

1. capable of division
2. sensitized by exposure to antigen
3. activated by helper T cells
4. B cells have all of these properties.

B cells have all of these properties.

Each of these is a class of immunoglobulins EXCEPT __________.


1. Immunoglobulin A
2. Immunoglobulin M
3. Immunoglobulin G
4. Immunoglobulin B

Immunoglobulin B

Delayed hypersensitivity is a type of __________.

1. allergy
2. skin infection
3. immunodeficiency disease
4. autoimmune disease

allergy

Particulate matter in the inhaled air is trapped by the __________.

1. epithelial mucus
2. pharyngeal muscles
3. paranasal sinuses
4. tracheal carina

epithelial mucus

Which of these structures is part of the lower respiratory system?

1. nasal vestibule
2. paranasal sinuses
3. pharynx
4. larynx

larynx

The "Adam's apple" is part of the __________.

1. cricoid cartilage
2. esophagus
3. thyroid cartilage
4. pharynx

thyroid cartilage

The posterior tracheal wall contacts the __________.

1. thyroid gland
2. esophagus
3. carina
4. primary bronchus

esophagus

Features visible on the surface of the lung include all of these EXCEPT __________.

1. parietal pleura
2. fissures
3. lobes
4. visceral pleura

parietal pleura

Which of these does NOT contribute to vital capacity?

1. residual volume
2. inspiratory reserve volume
3. expiratory reserve volume
4. tidal volume

residual volume

Which of these contributes to effective gas exchange?

1. small diffusion distances
2. high gas permeability
3. large surface area
4. All of these properties contribute to effective gas exchange.

All of these properties contribute to effective gas exchange.

Most oxygen is transported in the blood stream while it is __________.

1. bound to carbon dioxide
2. bound to hemoglobin
3. bound to albumin
4. dissolved in the plasma

bound to hemoglobin

The respiratory centers are located in __________.

1. the hypothalamus
2. both the medulla oblongata and the pons
3. the medulla oblongata only
4. the pons only

both the medulla oblongata and the pons

The respiratory system has very extensive connections with the __________ system.

1. cardiovascular
2. endocrine
3. integumentary
4. lymphoid

cardiovascular

Which of these is an accessory organ of digestion?

1. liver
2. esophagus
3. spleen
4. appendix

liver

The epithelium and the __________ make up the mucosa of the digestive tract.

1. adventitia
2. submucosa
3. lamina propria
4. serosa

lamina propria

Mechanical digestion begins in the oral cavity; enzymatic digestion doesn't begin until food enters the stomach. Are these two statements true or false?


1. Both statements are false.
2. The first is false; the second is true.
3. The first is true; the second is false.
4. Both statements are true.

The first is true; the second is false

The cardiac sphincter is found between the __________.

1. small and large intestine
2. esophagus and stomach
3. pharynx and esophagus
4. heart and aorta

esophagus and stomach

Which of these is NOT secreted directly into the lumen of the stomach?

1. gastrin
2. pepsin
3. mucus
4. hydrochloric acid

pepsin

The three divisions of the small intestine include all of these EXCEPT the __________.

1. duodenum
2. cecum
3. jejunum
4. ileum

cecum

At the corners of a liver lobule are found complexes formed of three tiny tubes. Which of these is NOT present in the complex?

1. hepatic artery
2. bile duct
3. hepatic vein
4. hepatic portal vein

hepatic vein

The epithelium of the large intestine microscopically most resembles that of the __________.

1. esophagus
2. jejunum
3. stomach
4. anal canal

stomach

Lipid-soluble vitamins cross the digestive epithelium primarily by _________.

1. diffusion
2. channel-mediated diffusion
3. active transport
4. vesicular transport

diffusion

The cephalic phase of stomach function is an example of the __________ system interacting with the digestive system.

1. urinary
2. nervous
3. cardiovascular
4. endocrine

nervous

About 40% of the energy content of nutrients is captured as ATP. The remainder is lost as __________.

1. perspiration
2. urine
3. feces
4. heat

heat

Through the process of __________, each glucose yields two pyruvate ions.

1. glycolysis
2. nutrition
3. oxidation
4. anabolism

glycolysis

36 ATP molecules can be produced during cellular respiration from a single glucose molecule. How many of those require oxygen for their production?

2
34
all of them
none of them

34

Gluconeogenesis is performed by __________.

1. red blood cells
2. liver cells
3. skeletal muscle cells
4. All of these cells perform gluconeogenesis

liver cells

Which of these statements is NOT true about beta-oxidation?

1. It yields large amounts of ATP.
2. Two-carbon fragments are formed.
3. Lipid molecules are converted into glucose molecules.
4. It takes place in mitochondria.

Lipid molecules are converted into glucose molecules.

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