Target Language. The additional language being learned.
First Language. The learners native language.
The ability to treat language as an object separate from the meaning it conveys.
Someone who responds to a learner's language in some way.
The theory of language learning that emphasizes the process of learners' exposure, recognition, association, generalization, pruning and connecting words with objects, experiences, and other words.
Those who acquire a second language around the same time that they are acquiring their first language.
Those who become fluent in a second language after they have already fully acquired their first language.
This form of bilingualism results in a home language that may be delayed or stalled before age-appropriate mastery of new language and negative consequences on self-esteem and relationships with family members.
A form of bilingualism that maintains the home language while the second language is being learned.
Benefits (of additive bilingualism)
Child fully develops the home language. Parents can fully express their knowledge and ideas.
Negative results (of subtractive bilingualism)
Detrimental consequences on self-esteem and relationships with family members.
A common way many people in North America speak to their children which includes a slower speed, a higher pitch, more varied intonation and a stress on key words.
The language second language learners use that is not the native language and is not the target language.
Describes a person who acquired languages in separate contexts and therefore are presumed to maintain independent linguistic stores.
Describes a person who acquired languages in a joint context and therefore are presumed to store linguistic information interdependently.
marked by normal levels of proficiency in both languages.
Describes achievement in age-appropriate proficiency in one of the two languages. seeks fluency and literacy in both languages, but generally restricts literacy in the mother tongue to subjects related to the ethnic group and its heritage.
the child lacks age-appropriate skills in both languages.
aims to develop both languages for aural-oral skills, but is not concerned with literacy skills in the mother tongue.
aims to develop all skills in both languages in all domains.