Endocrine Disorders: Basic Definition

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Basic definitions of a broad and thorough (though certainly not exhaustive) list of endocrine disorders.

Acromegaly

Occurs in adults: caused by a benign pituitary tumor (adenoma).

Gigantism

Occurs in children: caused by a benign pituitary tumor (adenoma).

Empty Sella Syndrome

May result in loss of pituitary functions: ceasing of menstrual periods, infertility, fatigue, and intolerance to stress/infection.

Galactorrhea

Milky discharge from the breasts of men or women who are not breastfeeding

Hypopituitarism

Inhibited production of one or many of the following: GH, LH, FSH, TSH and ACTH

Addison's Disease

Feel weak, tired, and dizzy when standing up after sitting or lying down and may develop dark skin patches.

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

Too much salt and water are lost in the urine, genital anamolies

Adrenoleukodystrophy

The fatty covering (myelin sheath) on nerve fibers in the brain is lost, and the adrenal gland degenerates, leading to progressive neurological disability and death.

Conn's Disease

Hypokalemia, increased blood pH (alkalosis), hypertension, excess aldosterone

Cushing's Syndrome

Obesity, increased fat in the neck and shoulder area, and thin fragile skin that bruises easily and heals slowly.

Diabetes Mellitus Type I

The body's pancreas does not produce enough insulin

Diabetes Mellitus Type II

Glucose isn't properly processed due to insulin insensitivity

Hirsutism

Excess hair growth

Hyperparathyroidism

Osteoporosis, osteomalacia, kidney stones

Hypoparathyroidism

Spasms, tetany, seizures

Dysmenorrhea

Menstrual cramps severe enough to prevent participation in normal activities

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia

Predispose people to develop benign tumors of the endocrine glands

Osteoporosis

Bone loss and weakness

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

If untreated may lead to infertility, excessive hair growth, acne, obesity, diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, abnormal bleeding from the uterus, and cancer.

Goiter

Caused by lack of iodine in diet

Graves' Disease

Autoantibody 'thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin' (TSI) mimics the action of TSH on the thyroid

Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

Autoimmune attack on thyroid causes it to become swollen and unable to synthesize sufficient hormone

Hyperthyroidism

Any condition in which the thyroid is overactive

Hypothyroidism

Any condition in which the thyroid is underactive

Cretinism

Thyroid deficiency in newborns can lead to growth failure and permanent mental retardation

Low T3 Syndrome (Wilson's Syndrome)

Reduced thyroid function due to a failure to convert sufficient T4 to T3

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