Van't Hoff Factor

In colligative properties calculations this variable corrects for ionic dissociation

Precipitation

The formation of a solid in a solution

Solution

A homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances

Spectrophotometer

Used to measure the light absorbance of solutions

Vapor Pressure

The pressure at which a gas will be dissolving back into solution at the same rate it is evaporating

Flaccid

The condition of a plant cell in an isotonic solution

Hypotonic

A solution with a much LOWER concentration than that of a solution within a semi-permeable membrane (such as a cell)

Osmometer

Used to measure the osmotic pressure of a solution

Normality

Reaction equivalents/L solution

Turgid

The condition of a plant cell in a hypotonic solution

Henry's Law

The solubility of a gas in a liquid at a particular temperature is proportional to the partial pressure of that gas above the liquid

Osmosis

The movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of high water potential (low concentration of dissolved substances) to an area of low water potential (high conc

Osmotic Pressure

The pressure that must be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane

Shriveled

The condition of an animal cell in a hypertonic solution

Ebullioscope

Used to measure the boiling point of solutions

Miscible

Two substances that form a solution when mixed in any proportion

Isotonic

A solution with the SAME concentration on both sides of a semi-permeable membrane

Heat of Hydration

Describes the change in enthalpy when a compound is dissolved in water

Plasmolyzed

The condition of a plant cell in a hypertonic solution

Density

Mass per volume

Boiling Point Elevation

Delta T = molality x ebullioscopic constant x van't hoff factor

Mole Fraction

mol solute/sum of all mol in solution

Evaporation

The process by which molecules in a liquid state or solid state spontaneously become gaseous

Colligative Properties

Properties of solutions that depend on the number of molecules in a given volume of solvent and not on the properties (e.g. size or mass) of the molecules

Dissolution

The rate at which one substance is solvated by another

Hypertonic

A solution with a much HIGHER concentration than that of a solution within a semi-permeable membrane (such as a cell)

Tyndall Effect

The scattering of light particles caused by colloids that tends to reflect blue better than other colors

Solute

A substance dissolved into a solution

Dilute

To add more solvent or reduce the amount of solute

Raoult's Law

Describes the effect on vapor pressure when increasing the concentration of a solution

Colloid

Particles of a dispersed substance are only suspended in a mixture, NOT completely dissolved

Supersaturated

A solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances

Freezing Point Depression

Describes the effect on freezing point of a solution with increasing concentration

Molality

mol solute/kg solvent

Solubility

Describes the equilibrium point at which rate of dissolution is equal to rate of precipitation (usually in mol/kg)

Concentration

How much of a given substance there is mixed with another substance, often referring to a solvent in a solute

Saturation

A concentration at which no further solute will dissolve in a solution

Solvent

The medium of a solution into which other substances are dissolved

Lysed

The condition of an animal cell in a hypotonic solution

Beer's Law

The amount of light absorbed by a substance at a given wavelength is directly proportional to its concentration in a solution.

Molarity

mol solute/L solution

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