Biology I, Ch. 6, Sec. 2 Study Questions

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These are study questions for the notes covering Ch. 6 (Photosynthesis), Sec. 2 (The Calvin Cycle)

The Calvin Cycle

What is a biochemical pathway of photosynthesis in which CO2 is converted into carbohydrate using the energy stored in ATP and NADPH during the light reactions?

ATP & NADPH

In the Calvin Cycle, CO2 is converted into carbohydrate using the energy stored in what two molecules?

Carbon fixation

What is the incorporation of carbon dioxide into organic compounds?

Organic compounds

Carbon fixation involves the incorporation of carbon dioxide into what?

In the stroma

In what part of the chloroplast does carbon fixation occur?

The cytosol

Initially, in the Calvin cycle, carbon dioxide diffuses into the stroma from where?

Carbon dioxide

In the first step of the Calvin cycle, what diffuses into the stroma from the cytosol?

The stroma

At the beginning of the Calvin cycle, what does carbon dioxide diffuse into?

Ribulose Bisphosphate (RuBP)

In the first part of the Calvin cycle, when carbon dioxide diffuses into the stroma, what molecule does the carbon dioxide bind to?

5

How many carbon molecules are found in Ribulose Bisphosphate (RuBP)?

A carbohydrate

What type of macromolecule is Ribulose Bisphosphate?

It splits into two molecules of phosphoglycerate (PGA)

What happens to the 6-carbon molecule that is formed during the Calvin cycle from carbon dioxide binding to Ribulose Bisphosphate?

3

How many carbon molecules are found in Phosphoglycerate (PGA)?

From ATP

In the Calvin cycle, when PGA is converted into G3P, where does the phosphate come from that is required to make that happen?

From NADPH

In the Calvin cycle, when PGA is converted into G3P, where does the proton come from that is required to make that happen?

ADP

When ATP loses a phosphate, what is the ATP converted into?

H+

What is the chemical symbol of a proton?

Adenosine Triphosphate

What does ATP stand for?

Adenosine Diphosphate

What does ADP stand for?

NADP+

In the Calvin cycle, when NADPH loses a proton, what is the NADPH converted into?

3

How many carbons are in a molecule of G3P?

Phosphoglyceraldehyde

What is the actual name of G3P?

6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy yields C6H12O6 + 6O2

What is the balanced chemical equation for photosynthesis?

Corn, Crabgrass, & Sugar cane

What are three examples of C4 plants?

Pineapple & Cactus

What are two examples of CAM plants?

CAM

What type of plants lose the least amount of water: C3, C4, or CAM?

Crassulacean Acid Metabolism

What does CAM stand for?

Opened all day

When are the stomata opened in C3 plants?

Closed all night

When are the stomata closed in C3 plants?

Opened all day, except during the hottest part of the day

When are the stomata opened in C4 plants?

At night and during the hottest part of the day

When are the stomata closed in C4 plants?

Opened all night

When are the stomata opened in CAM plants?

Closed all day

When are the stomata closed in CAM plants?

The CAM pathway

During which pathway is carbon dioxide incorporated into organic acids at night?

Stomata

What are the small pores found on leaves?

On the underside

On which side of a leaf are stomata usually found?

Aquatic plants whose leaves float on the surface of the water

What type of plants have stomata on the top surface of their leaves?

9

How many ATP molecules get used in three turns of the Calvin cycle?

6

How many NADPH molecules get used in three turns of the Calvin cycle?

Protons, electrons, and oxygen

When water is split during the light reactions of photosynthesis, what is produced?

From the splitting of water

Where does the oxygen come from that is produced during the light reactions?

To regenerate RuBP

What is most of the G3P from the Calvin cycle used for?

To make organic compounds like amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates

What is a small portion of the G3P from the Calvin cycle used for?

1

How many molecules of carbon dioxide are fixed during one full turn of the Calvin cycle?

1

How many molecules of RuBP are regenerated during one full turn of the Calvin cycle?

3

How many turns of the Calvin cycle does it take to produce one molecule of G3P?

Check your drawing

Try to draw the diagram of the Calvin cycle without looking at your notes or textbook.

3

How many molecules of ATP get used in one turn of the Calvin cycle?

2

How many molecules of NADPH get used in one turn of the Calvin cycle?

Because they incorporate carbon dioxide into 3-carbon compounds in the Calvin cycle

Why are C3 plants so named?

Because they incorporate carbon dioxide into 4-carbon compounds in the Calvin cycle

Why are C4 plants so named?

Carbon dioxide

What enters a plant through stomata?

Oxygen and water

What leaves a plant through stomata?

Because C4 plants close their stomata during the hottest part of the day to reduce water loss, but C3 plants cannot

Why do C4 plants require less water than C3 plants?

The level of carbon dioxide falls

What happens to the level of carbon dioxide when the stomata are closed?

The level of carbon dioxide decreases

What happens to the level of carbon dioxide when the stomata are closed?

The level of carbon dioxide is low and the level of oxygen is high

Describe the levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen when carbon fixation by the Calvin cycle is inhibited.

Enzymes

What do C4 plants have that allow them to fix carbon 4 times faster than C3 plants during periods of low carbon dioxide and high oxygen?

They allow C4 plants to fix carbon dioxide 4 times faster than C3 plants is low carbon dioxide and high oxygen

What is the function of the enzymes found in C4 plants?

They grow in areas where more abundant sunlight (energy) is available

How do C4 plants compensate for requiring more energy than C3 plants?

During the day

When does the Calvin cycle run in CAM plants?

As light intensity increases, the rate of photosynthesis initially increases then levels off

Describe how light intensity affects the rate of photosynthesis.

As the level of carbon dioxide increases, the rate of photosynthesis initially increases then levels off

Describe how the level of carbon dioxide affects the rate of photosynthesis.

As temperature increases, photosynthesis accelerates then reaches a peak; Some of the enzymes that catalyze photosynthesis become unstable and ineffective; Stomata close which limits water loss and carbon dioxide entry into the leaves; Photosynthesis decreases

Describe how temperature affects the rate of photosynthesis.

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