Which of the following was not an element of the "war on crime" outlined in 1965 by the President in his message to the 89th Congress?
A. Increased federal law enforcement efforts
B. Assistance to local law enforcement efforts
C. A comprehensive, penetrating analysis of the origins and nature of crime in modern America
D. All of these were outlined as elements of the "war on crime."
The recommendations of the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice were disappointing because
A. studies by noted criminologists such as Sutherland and Wilson tended to
minimize the poverty-crime connection.
B. it was naive to reason that by simply spending enough money and energy America could abolish crime.
C. they said nothing that was really new and innovative.
D. All of these
The majority of historical and scholarly evidence suggests that poverty
A. and crime tend to increase at the same time.
B. may serve to perpetuate crime but is not a major cause of crime.
C. and crime are totally unrelated.
D. and crime rates stand in an inverse relationship.
Those scholars who had spent their lives studying crime were acutely disappointed with the President's suggestion that poverty was one of the most important causes of crime and therefore should be a target of the "war on crime." Why?
A. They believed that organized crime should be the major topic.
B. Youth crime could not be linked with poverty.
C. Drug use had been attributed to youths from affluent families.
D. They knew that the root causes of crime could not be found in any simplistic equation involving only the disadvantaged segments of society.
The President's "war on crime" resulted in the passage in 1968 of a major piece of federal legislation. What was it?
A. Law Enforcement Assistance Act
B. Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act
C. Harrison Act
D. The Model Penal Code
Which federal agency was created to lead the "war on crime?"
A. Office of Law Enforcement Assistance (OLEA)
B. Bureau of Drug Abuse and Control (BDAC)
C. Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA)
D. Task Force on Organized Crime (TOC)
The LEAA was most effective in
A. reducing the crime rate.
B. determining the causes of crime.
C. reducing the size of jail populations.
D. establishing criminal justice education programs.
The ________________ was a piece of federal "law and order" legislation that was viewed by many as a political maneuver aimed at allaying fears of crime rather than bringing about criminal justice reform.
A. Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act
B. Posse Comitatus Act
C. President's Commission on Law and Order
D. Law Enforcement Education Act
As early as 1930, the U.S. Supreme Court began the process of the "nationalization" of the ________________ in order that the rights provided by this document may also be extended to state defendants.
A. Bill of Rights
C. Declaration of Independence
D. Emancipation Proclamation
Political scientist James Q. Wilson targeted the peculiarity of the poverty-crime nexus in his phrase
A. "Poverty as such is not an important cause of crime."
B. "Crime amidst plenty: the paradox of the sixties."
C. "Civil rights law is a law against crime."
D. "Money for schools is money against crime."
In the 1960s, the Warren Court announced a number of decisions that were in accord with the due process model of the criminal justice system; one decision after another led toward the incorporation of the Bill of Rights through the _______________________ clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
A. crime control
B. police control
C. due process
In contrast to the Warren Court, the Burger Court appeared to support a (an)
A. due process model.
B. crime control model.
C. corrections model.
D. inmates model.
Since the early 1970s, the number of female inmates has
C. remained the same.
D. increased, but women have remained in their traditional roles when participating in crimes.
Appeals for "law and order" were cries for
A. a return to the morality of previous decades and a rallying slogan against the anarchy that appeared to prevail in the streets.
B. tougher sentencing guidelines for convicted criminals.
C. the nationalization of the Bill of Rights.
D. reform of corrupt police departments.
The assassination of President Kennedy, the murders of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman, and the accusations of child molestation against Michael Jackson are similar because of the _______________ of the individuals involved.
The main criticism targeted against the LEAA was that it overemphasized the funding of a technological war on crime.
True or False?
A legacy of the "war on drugs" is a criminal justice process that appears to be drug-driven in almost every respect.
True or False?