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College Fundamentals of Music theory accumalation

Common Practice Period

(1600-1900) the basis for our traditional system of notating music and defining its elements, basis of the study of music fundamentals.

Frequency

the number of cycles per second (or Hertz, abbreviated Hz)

Pitch

A steady, single frequency

Rhythm

How sounds are arranged in time and the proportional relationships between them.

Timbre

acoustic wave shape that forms the "color" of pitch.

Dynamics

specify how loud or soft a sound is in musical notation, and based on italian terms.

pianississimo

very very soft

pianissimo

very soft

piano

soft

mezzo-piano

medium soft

mezzo-forte

medium loud

forte

loud

fortissimo

very loud

fortississmo

very very loud

tuplet

any rhythm that involves dividing the beat into a different number of equal subdivisions from that usually permitted by the time-signature (e.g., triplets, duplets, etc.)

triplet

three notes performed in the space of two

quintuplet

5 notes into the time of 4

sextuplet

6 notes in the time 5

septuplet

7 notes in the time of 6

largo

very slow

adagio

slow

andante

moderately slow

moderato

moderate

allegro

fast

presto

very fast

Simple groupings

grouping of two notes

compound groupings

grouping of three notes

divisive rhythm

involves dividing a larger period of time into smaller rhythmic units

downbeat

first beat of each measure

upbeat

last beat of each measure

simple meter

each beat divides into simple groupings

Time signature in simple grouping top number means?

indicates the number of beats per measure

Time signature in simple grouping bottom number means?

indicates the beat note type

The top number time signature in compound grouping means?

divided beats per measure

The bottom number time signature in compound grouping means?

divided beat note type

Fermata

indicates that the pulse stops and all parts must wait

asymmetrical meters

Unequal length of the beats for example 5/8

octave

eight notes, starting on a c and going up eight notes to the next c. Doubles the frequency of a certain pitch

enharmonic

relationship between pitches that "overlap" and occur on the same piano key

diatonic half step

each of the notes have a different letter name

chromatic hale step

half step where both notes use the same letter name but different accidentals

8va

one octave above notated pitches

15ma

two octaves above notated pitches

8vb

one octave below notated pitches

15mb

two octaves below notates pitches

ledger lines

used to extend both above and below each staff

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