Age of Reason
A period of time where Europeans believed one could use logic and reasoning to understand the universe and human nature. Included two movements: Scientific Revolution and Age of Enlightenment
Characteristics of Ancient Science
Inductive Reasoning, Observation; Galen (pigs, anatomy) and Ptolemy (geocentricity)
Characteristics of Medieval Science
Superstition, Magic; Alchemy and Philosopher's Stone
Characteristics of Renaissance Science
Skepticism, some observation, some experimentation; Copernicus (Heliocentricity) and daVinci (Scientific Method)
The Scientific Revolution
The developement of new systems of investigation. Generalization: Scientific truth can be arrived at through careful observation and experimentation
Characteristics of the Scientific Revolution
Doubting everything, scientific method, applying logic and reasoning, technological advancements, natural laws, inductive and deductive reasoning
Galileo: innovation of telescope. Kepler: heliocentricity by math
Galileo and Newton: Gravity. LaVoisier: Law of Conservation of Matter
Harvey: circuit of blood. Vesalius: human organs. Hooke: cells
LaVoisier: cumbustion, named oxygen. Boyle: elements. Priestly: discovered oxygen, but didn't give it a name. DEPHLOGISTICATED AIR
The Age of Enlightenment
Period of Europeans applying the scientific method to explain human nature
Belief: Universal truth can be arrived at by the application of reason and logical thinking
Natural Law: Universal Moral Law
Belief: Natural law governs human behavior. to live in harmony, humans use reason; one must use reason to discover natural law
Progress through challenge and education
Belief: the entire human race can be educated to achieve nearly infinite improvements and is innately good
Philosophers, social scientists, social critics
Edited by Diderot; written in 1751-1777, revised in 1780. 28 volumes, 300 illustrations, critical of the church and government, included all known science, technology, and history
Located in Paris. Comprised of wealthy patrons to exchange ideas, gatherings of philosophers, the social, political, and cultural elite.
Religious Philosophical movement. Denounced organized religion cause it exploited people's ignorance and superstitions. Attempted to construct more natural religion based on reason and natural law. Believed in God and morality. No on religious help religious truth, promoted religious tolerance.
Ruled according to Principals of Enlightenment. Ex: In Russion, Frederick II: "I am the first servant of the State". Maria Theresa and son Joseph II: educated, rights to people, etc.
Opposite of Enlightened Despots:
Louis XIV: "I am the state"
Economic Philosophes. reacted to the strictness of mercantilism. Promoted laissez-faire
SEE PHILOSOPHICAL REVOLUTION HANDOUT
Opposite of Descartes. Applied scientific method to man. Empirical knowledge: knowledge gained through senses. Inductive reasoning: synthesis
opposite of Bacon. rationalist, truth must be reached through reason. "DOUBT EVERYTHING until one's own thoughts proved existence" "I THINK, THEREFORE I AM".
Descarte's view on reality
2 kinds: mind-belonged to man alone, we're machines with minds. matter-based on physical laws.
opposite of Hobbes. contract b/w people and ruler: believed man started out good. Used natural to argue against absolutism. People had the right to overthrow gov't if it doesnt uphold their natural rights. MEN HAVE THE RIGHT TO LIFE, LIBERTY, AND PROPERTY
Opposite of Locke. wrote Leviathan. believed man was violent and disorderly, used natural law to argue in favor of absolutism. people and gov't form contract to give up freedom and live obediently under a ruler. people don't have the right to rebel
Political Philosopher, Separation og gov't into three branches. stressed individual rights
diest, mocked church and royal court of France. wrote Candide, defender of freedom of speech: "I disapprove of what you say but will defend to the death your right to say it"
Opposite of Enlightenment. Man is good, society is evil. man is corrupted by education, env, and laws. favored emotions, not reason. wrote The Social Contract: favored popular sovereignty. social contract exists between and among people.
careful dissections of human body, founded the science of anatomy. On the Fabric of the Human Body
improved the telescope, observations of heavens confirmed the Copernican theory
determined that the planets follow an elliptical orbit around the sun
Circulation of blood
law of gases
law of gravitation; Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, or Principia
law, identifies hydrogen. Father of Modern Chemistry
Isolated dephlogisticated air. Phlogistan theory.