Hormone Function (all)

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The basic function of all hormones in the human body.

Activin

antagonist to inhibin: enhances FSH biosynthesis and secretion, and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle

Adiponectin

appears to increase insulin effects (sensitivity); anti-inflammatory and anti-arthrogenic

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol

Aldosterone

"salt-retaining hormone" which promotes the retention of Na+ by the kidneys. Na+ retention promotes water retention, which promotes a higher blood volume and pressure

Amylin

Works w/ insulin & glucagon to maintain normal blood sugar

Androstenedione

a weak androgen; the chief androgen produced by the adrenal cortex

Angiotensin

vasoconstrictor that results in an increase in blood pressure

Angiotensinogen

prohormone produced by the liver then converted by renin to angiotensin I, then that is converted by ACE to angiotensin II which is a vasoconstrictor

Anti-mullerian Hormone

In male embryos, turns off the development of a uterus and other female structures.

Antidiuretic Hormone

promotes water retention, in high concentrations is also a vasoconstrictor. both of these effects raise the blood pressure

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide

A peptide hormone secreted by cardiac atrial cells in response to atrial distension (increased blood flow); causes increased renal sodium excretion and as such lowers blood pressure (antagonizing aldosterone).

Calcitonin

Produced by the thyroid gland and decreases the blood calcium levels by stimulating calcium deposit in the bones (__________ keeps the bone in). The antagonist of the parathyroid hormone.

Calcitriol

steroid hormone produced by the kidneys in response to the presence of PTH; stimulates calcium and phosphate ion absorption in the digestive tract; the active form of Vitamin D

Cholecystokinin

hormone the small intestine secretes to stimulate release of pancreatic juice from pancreas and bile from gallbladder

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone

signals the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary

Cortisol

secreted from the adrenal cortex, aids the body during stress by increasing glucose levels and suppressing immune system function

Dehydroepiandrosterone

a weak androgen; a precursor for other androgens and also some estrogens

Dihydrotestosterone

strongest androgen; principally responsible for masculinization in sexual differentiation

Dopamine

neurotransmitter; endocrine function = inhibits prolactin release

Enkephalin

an innate brain and spinal cord endorphin that blocks pain signals (opioid)

Epinephrine

adrenaline; activates a sympathetic nervous system by making the heart beat faster, stopping digestion, enlarging pupils, sending sugar into the bloodstream, preparing a blood clot faster

Erythropoietin

stimulates the production of red blood cells

Estradiol

The chief estrogen, females produce more than males, develops and maintains female secondary sex characteristics, important roles in menstruation and pregnancy

Estriol

a major estrogen during pregnancy, the estrogen synthesized by the placenta

Estrone

a naturally occurring weak estrogenic hormone secreted by the mammalian ovary

Follicle Stimulating Hormone

WOMEN: initiates growth of ovarian follicles each month and stimulates ovulation; MEN: stimulates sperm production

Gastrins

released by the stomach in the presence of food; gastrin promotes muscular activity of the stomach as well as secretion of hydrochloric acid, pepsinogen, and mucus

Ghrelin

a hunger-arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach

Glucagon

The antagonist of insulin. Its release is stimulated by low blood glucose levels. It stimulates the liver, its primary target organ, to break down its glycogen stores to glucose and subsequently to release glucose to the blood.

Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone

this hormone stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH

Growth Hormone

affects size of an individual by promoting cell division, protein synthesis, and bone growth

Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone

inhibits the release of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary

Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone

signals the release of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary

Hepcidin

inhibits iron uptake, prevent release of iron

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

stimulates the corpus luteum to grow and secrete estrogen and progesterone at a higher rate; pregnancy tests work by detecting this in women's urine

Human Placental Lactogen

This hormone ensures a sufficient supply of protein, glucose, and minerals are available to the fetus.

Incretins

secreted by gastrointestinal tract; enhance glucose-stimulated release of insulin; inhibit glucagon

Inhibin

antagonist to activin: inhibits FSH synthesis and inhibits FSH secretion

Insulin

Hormone produced by the pancreas that is released when stimulated by elevated glucose levels. This hormone decreases blood sugar levels by accelerating the transport of glucose into the body cells where it is oxidized for energy or converted to glycogen or fat for storage.

Insulin-Like Growth Factor

circulates in blood plasma and directly stimulates bone and cartilage growth

Leptin

a protein secreted by fat cells, when abundant causes the brain to increase metabolism and decreases hunger.

Leukotrienes

fatty molecules of the immune system that regulate inflammation, especially in the lungs; they are heavily involved in the problems associated with asthma and bronchitis

Lipotropin

promotes the utilization of fat by the body and is a precursor to the endorphins

Luteinizing hormone

WOMEN: regulates estrogen secretion and ovum development; MEN: testosterone production

Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone

causes melanocytes to releases melanin (creates a tan)

Melatonin

targets the brain to control circadian rhythms and circannual rhythms, and may be involved in maturation of sex organs

Neuropeptide Y

neurotransmitter found in several brain areas, most notably the hypothalamus, that stimulates eating behavior and reduces metabolism, promoting positive energy balance and weight gain

Norepinephrine

noradrenaline; chemical which is excitatory, similar to adrenaline, and affects arousal and memory; raises blood pressure by causing blood vessels to become constricted

Orexin

plays a critical role in preventing abnormal consciousness transitions, particularly into REM sleep; may stimulate hunger

Oxytocin

induces contraction of the uterine muscles during childbirth and causes the mammary glands to eject milk during nursing

Parathyroid Hormone

Increases blood levels of calcium (stimulates breakdown of bone and rate at which calcium is removed from urine and absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract)

Peptide YY

neuropeptide secreted in the small bowel and colon; signals appetite suppression

Progesterone

One of the hormones produced by the ovaries. It works with estrogen to control the menstrual cycle. Also secreted to prepare and sustain the endometrium of the uterus for pregnancy

Prolactin

targets the mammary glands stimulating them to produce breastmilk

Prolactin Releasing Hormone

stimulates the release of prolactin from the pituitary

Prostacyclins

chiefly prevents formation of the platelet plug in hemostasis (part of blood clotting); it does this by inhibiting platelet activation; antagonist to thromboxanes

Prostaglandins

have an immediate, short-term localized effect, involved in inflammation and pain, blood flow, and blood clotting, as well as other factors

Relaxin

a hormone produced by the placenta prior to labor, causes the ligaments within the pelvis to loosen

Renin

enzyme that is produced by the kidney; important for blood pressure and volume regulation; catalyzes the conversion of circulating angiotensinogen to angiotensin I

Retinol Binding Protein 4

Function not well understood; secreted by adipocytes (fat cells) and may communicate signal low blood sugar; recently associated with the development of insulin insensitivity

Secretin

A hormone secreted by the small intestine (duodenum) in response to low pH (e.g., from stomach acid). It promotes the release of bicarbonate from the pancreas to act as a buffer.

Serotonin

a neurotransmitter involved in sleep, depression; precursor of melatonin

Testosterone

The male sex hormone produced by the testes which promotes the maturation of the reproductive system, development of the male secondary sex characteristics, and is responsible for sexual drive (libido)

Thrombopoietin

stimulates production of platelets

Thromboxanes

a vasoconstrictor and a potent hypertensive agent, and it facilitates platelet aggregation; antagonist to prostacyclins

Thymopoietin

Function not well understood, affects nuclear architecture, two receptors specific to __________ have been found on human T-cells

Thymosin

Produced by the thymus gland during childhood, this hormone stimulates T-lymphocyte development and differentiation.

Thymulin

involved in T-cell differentiation and enhancement of T and natural killer cell actions

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

causes thyroid gland cells to secrete T3 and T4; stimulates thyroid growth

Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone

signals the pituitary gland to release TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)

Thyroxine

hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidation in cells

Triiodothyronine

thyroid hormone similar to thyroxine but with one less iodine atom per molecule and produced in smaller quantity

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