Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

causes thyroid gland cells to secrete T3 and T4; stimulates thyroid growth

Follicle Stimulating Hormone

WOMEN: initiates growth of ovarian follicles each month and stimulates ovulation; MEN: stimulates sperm production

Luteinizing hormone

WOMEN: regulates estrogen secretion and ovum development; MEN: testosterone production

Growth Hormone

affects size of an individual by promoting cell division, protein synthesis, and bone growth

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol

Antidiuretic Hormone

promotes water retention, in high concentrations is also a vasoconstrictor. both of these effects raise the blood pressure

Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone

signals the pituitary gland to release TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)

Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone

this hormone stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH

Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone

signals the release of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone

signals the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary

Melatonin

targets the brain to control circadian rhythms and circannual rhythms, and may be involved in maturation of sex organs

Thyroxine

hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidation in cells

Calcitonin

Produced by the thyroid gland and decreases the blood calcium levels by stimulating calcium deposit in the bones (calcitonin keeps the bone in). The antagonist of the parathyroid hormone.

Parathyroid Hormone

Increases blood levels of calcium (stimulates breakdown of bone and rate at which calcium is removed from urine and absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract)

Insulin

Hormone produced by the pancreas that is released when stimulated by elevated glucose levels. This hormone decreases blood sugar levels by accelerating the transport of glucose into the body cells where it is oxidized for energy or converted to glycogen or fat for storage.

Glucagon

The antagonist of insulin. Its release is stimulated by low blood glucose levels. It stimulates the liver, its primary target organ, to break down its glycogen stores to glucose and subsequently to release glucose to the blood.

Epinephrine

adrenaline; activates a sympathetic nervous system by making the heart beat faster, stopping digestion, enlarging pupils, sending sugar into the bloodstream, preparing a blood clot faster

Norepinephrine

noradrenaline; chemical which is excitatory, similar to adrenaline, and affects arousal and memory; raises blood pressure by causing blood vessels to become constricted

Aldosterone

salt-retaining hormone which promotes the retention of Na+ by the kidneys. Na+ retention promotes water retention, which promotes a higher blood volume and pressure

Cortisol

secreted from the adrenal cortex, aids the body during stress by increasing glucose levels and suppressing immune system function

Estradiol

The chief estrogen, females produce more than males, develops and maintains female secondary sex characteristics, important roles in menstruation and pregnancy

Progesterone

One of the hormones produced by the ovaries. It works with estrogen to control the menstrual cycle. Also secreted to prepare and sustain the endometrium of the uterus for pregnancy

Testosterone

The male sex hormone produced by the testes which promotes the maturation of the reproductive system, development of the male secondary sex characteristics, and is responsible for sexual drive (libido)

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