the shifting of physiological or biological systems to better handle the physical environment.
Focuses on the way specific, often small-scale societies use culture to fashion adaptations to particular, local ecological settings.
Hunting and Gathering (foraging)
The first two hundred and forty thousand years
raising livestock, generally nomadic, follows the grass
Cultivating domesticated plants by using human labor and simple tools, generally polycroping.
Slash and burn or shifting cultivation.
The use of draft animals, complex tools and monocroping. Starts around ten thousand years ago in Southwest Asia.
The quantity of yields versus the quantity of labor.
in agricultural production surpluses make possible new and increasingly complex forms of social organization.
A centralized location in which goods can be traded for money or other goods.
Gift giving, often linked to social obligations. For example, birthday and wedding presents.
Material goods flow towards a central person or institution and are then redistributed among members of the society according to the cultural norms and values.
Fiesta System (Mayordomia)
Based on sponsorship and combined with a system of reciprocal presentations.
All adult members of the society have roughly equal access to valued resources, both material and social.
An independent political entity that controls a geographical territory with clear boundaries and that defends itself from external threats with an army and from internal disorder with police (coercive instead of persuasive).
The use of physical force.
The ability to exact specific forms of influence and control by virtue of the fact they legitimately occupy a formal office.
the process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task.
A status conferred by the people on the government's officials, acts, and institutions through their belief that the government's actions are an appropriate use of power by a legally constituted governmental authority following correct decisions on making policies.
includes social mechanisms that regulate individual and group behavior, leading to conformity and complies to the rules of a given society or social group.
When a centralized government publicly sets forth both explicit formal definitions of right conduct and explicit penalties for failure to observe such standards and backs these definitions with its monopoly with coercive power.
(generally egalitarian) Foragers, often number less then fifty individuals.
(domestication of plants and animals, generally, horticulturalists and pastoralists) larger egalitarian groups, little craft specialization.
Erosion of egalitarianism, beginnings of craft specialization, creation of a political figures and lineages, but still limited to persuasive powers instead of coercive powers.
To marry outside a defined social group.
To marry inside a defined social group.
Where procreation with a nuclear family member is prohibited.
A transfer of familial wealth, usually from parents to daughter at the time of marriage.
Bride Service (Bride price)
In which the prospective groom must work for the family of the bride for a predetermined length of time before they marry.
Bridewealth (Bride price)
In which symbolically important goods are transferred from the immediate family of the groom to the family of the bride. Important to distinguish this from buying a wife!
Any marriage in which one person has only one spouse.
In which a person may have more then one spouse.
In which a man has more then one wife.
In which a woman has more then one husband.
In which the new partners set up an independent household at a place of their own choosing.
In which the new partners live with or near the husband's father.
In which the new partners live with or near the wife's mother.
A family composed to two generations living with each other, the parents and their unmarried children.
A family that includes a third generation--parents, married children, and grandchildren.
are composed of people who believe they can specify the parent--child links that connect them to one another through a comment ancestor.
When people believe they are in some way connected but cannot specify the precise genealogical links.
Links traced through the father or male kin.
Links traced through the mother or female kin.
Links traced through both the mother and father, male and female kin.
Your father's brother's children, or your mother's sister's children.
Your mother's brother's children or your father's sister's children.
Socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women.
An organism's sex is determined by the genome it inherits.
Sexual division of labor
Culturally defined, but having some general traits.
Men are stronger (questionable) and can take on more physically taxing roles.
Fertility Maintenance Hypothesis
To preserve the females ability to bare and rear children.
Child-care compatibility hypothesis
Woman are better capable of rearing children then men.
Humanistic (interpretive) approaches
Interpret the magic or religion in the cultural context it is set.
Scientific (functional) approaches
Describes the religion, ritual or magic in terms of how it helps the culture or individuals to function.
Describes the religion, ritual or magic in terms of how it helps the individual to cope with stress.
Describes the religion, ritual or magic and how it helps to build social and group solidarity.
pertains to an order of existence beyond the physically visible universe.
Identifies certain repetitive social practices, many of which have nothing to do with religion. A sequence of symbolic activities that form the social routines of everyday life.
A world view in which people personify cosmic forces and devise ways to deal with them that resemble the ways they deal with powerful human beings in their society.
Magic for hire.
The performance of evil by human beings believed to posses an innate, nonhuman "witchcraft substance" that can be activated without the individuals awareness.
the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of a standardized process or ritual.
Part-time religious specialists commonly found in small-scale egalitarian societies.
religious ritual that involves addressing personified forces in human speech, often out loud, while holding the body in a conventional posture of respect.
Tell people where they have come from and where they are going and therefore how they should live right now.
Myths that explain the creation of the world or of particular features of the landscape or of human beings.
a philosophical, religious or spiritual idea that souls or spirits exist not only in humans but also in other animals, plants, rocks, natural phenomena such as thunder, and geographic features such as mountains or rivers.
a religious belief that is frequently associated with shamanistic religions. The totem is usually an animal or other natural figure that spiritually represents a group of related people such as a clan.
or speaking in tongues is the fluent vocalizing (or, less commonly, the writing) of speech-like syllables, often as part of religious practice.
a strong social prohibition (or ban) relating to any area of human activity or social custom that is sacred and forbidden. Breaking the taboo is usually considered objectionable or abhorrent by society.
Societies in which connections of relatedness do not end with physical death.