Intro Chem Ch. 1-3 Test

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What is Chemistry The Evolution of Atomic Theory The Modern Model of The Atom Labs

Which of the following is an example of science?

A. nuclear medicine
B. invention of the internal combustion engine
C. isotopic dating of a meteorite
D. learning how bats fly

D. learning how bats fly

Which of the following is an example of technology?

A. understanding photosynthesis
B. hydroelectric power
C. determining the structure of the atom
D. study of the human brain

B. hydroelectric power

In which of the following industries does chemistry play an important role?

A. paper
B. electronics
C. construction
D. transportation
E. all of the above

E. all of the above

Which of the following may NOT be classified as matter?

A. sand
B. fog
C. tooth filling
D. seawater
E. heat

E. heat

Which statement best describes an atom?

A. it is always pure.
B. it can be easily isolated
C. it is the smallest particle of an element that still retains all the properties of that element
D. it is the smallest particle of a molecule

C. it is the smallest particle of an element that still retains all the properties of that element

The only way one can change an element to another is via _____.

A. a chemical reaction
B. applying heat
c. a nuclear reaction
D. a physical reaction

C. a nuclear reaction

What is the name give to the element with the symbol "P"?

A. Protactinium
B. Phosphorus
C. Polonium
D. Palladium

B. Phosphorous

What chemical symbol has been given to the element sodium?

A. S
B. Sr
C. K
D. Na

D. Na

Which element pair is incorrect?

A. Au - gold
B. Ag - silver
C. Hg - mercury
D. Mg - magnesium
E. Pb - iron

E. Pb - iron

The smallest possible piece of the compound nonane, a component of gasoline, contains 9 carbon atoms and 20 hydrogen atoms. Write the chemical formula for nonane, with carbon first.

A. C9H29
B. C20H
C. C9H20
D. H20C9

C. C9H20

The formula for mustard gas used in chemical warfare is C4H8SCI2. How many hydrogen atoms are in one molecule of this compound?

A. 15
B. 2
C. 1
D. 8
E. 4

D. 8

The formula for the illegal drug cocaine is C17H21NO4. How many atoms, total, are in one molecule of the compound?

A. 38
B. 44.
C. 42.
D. 43
E. 25

D. 43

Which of the following is a pure substance?

A. gasoline
B. block of aluminum or sodium
C. 14-karat gold bracelet. 14-karat gold is made by melting gold and other metals together.
D. blood
E. orange juice with pulp

B. block of aluminum or sodium

Which of the following is apure, elemental substance?

A. air
B. SO2(g)
C. vitamin C
D. brass
E. Br2(l)

Br2(l)

Which of the following is a compound?

A. H2O2(l)
B. vitamin C tablet
C. F2(g)
D. graphite or diamond
E. O2(g)

A. H2O2(l)

The chemical compounds CO and CO2 have exactly the same properties, because both are made from carbon and oxygen.

True or False?

FALSE

A compound is a pure substance, but a pure substance need not be a compound.

TRUE

What is another name for a homogenous mixture?

A. dilute sugar solution
B. diamond, which is pure carbon
C. table salt
D. freshly distilled water
E. oil-vinegar salad dressing

A. dilute sugar solution

What is another name for a homogeneous mixture?

A. Solution
B. Pure Substance
C. Element
D. Compound

A. Solution

Which of the following is an example of a homogenous mixture?

A. air
B. beach sand
c. sugar
D. copper
E. the Earth

A. air

Distilled water is heterogeneous because it is made from twice as much hydrogen as oxygen (H2O).

True of False?

False

Which of the follwoing is an example of a heterogeneous mixture?

A. tap water
B. chicken noodle soup
C. steel
D. seawater
E. oxidized or aged wine

B. chicken noodle soup

Which of the follwoing is an example of a heterogeneous mixture?

A. intravenous liquid
b. lemonade without pulp
C. vitamin C
D. fully rusted nail
E. breakfast cereal and milk

E. breakfast cereal and milk

Which of the following are examples of mixtures that look homogeneous but are actually heterogeneous?

A. chicken noodle soup, oil-vinegar salad dressing
B. steel, brass, 14-karat gold
C. seawater, tap water, dilute sugar solution
D. milk, margarine, ice cream

D. milk, margarine, ice cream

Which can be separated by chemical means?

A. a homogeneous mixture
B. an element
C. a heterogeneous mixture
D. a compound

D. a compound

Which of the following is aphysical means of separation?

A. both filtering and electrolysis
B. electrolysis
C. thermal decomposition
D. filtering

D. filtering

Which of the following is NOT a chemical property of carbon dioxide?

A. It is used in fire extinguishers because it does not support combustion
B. it is a critical component in photosynthesis
C. it is used to pump up bicycle tires
D. it is soluble in blood, meaning that it reacts with the water in blood to form carbonic acid

C. it is used to pump up bicycle tires

Which of the following represents a chemical porperty of a specific metal?

A. When in contact with air it corrodes
B. it has magnectic properties
C. it melts at 800 degrees C
D. its density is higher than that of water

A. When in contact with air it corrodes

Which of the following represents a chemical change?

A. frying an egg
B. diluting orange juice
C. sublimation of dry ice
D. breaking a piece of glass
E. molding melted silver

A. frying an egg

Which of the following represents a chemcial change?

A. water boiling to form steam
B. filtering a liquid to remove a suspended material
C. separating iron filings from sand with a magnet
D. sugar dissolving into hot coffee
E. steel turning to rust in salt air

E. steel turning to rust in salt air

Which of the following represents a chemical process?
i) mixing salt with water
ii) cooking vegetables with steam
iii) burning paper

A. only iii
B. i, ii, and iii
C. i and ii
D. i and iii
E. ii and iii

D. ii and iii

in the chemical reaction for the "burning" of sugar, C6H12O6 + O2 --> 6 CO2 + H2O, which substances are the reactans and which are the products?

Reactants: C6H12O6, O2
Products: CO2, H2O

Which of the following represents a physical property?

A. sodium metal is extremely reactive with chlorine gas
B. the flammability of butane fuel
C. the unreactive nature of argon gas
D. mercury is a shiny liquid at room temperature
E. the tendency of aluminum to "oxidize"

D. mercury is a shiny liquid at room temperature

Which of the following is an example of a physical property?

A. crystalline form
B. hardness
C. boiling point
D. appearance
E. all of the above

E. all of the above

How can one tell that a physical change has taken place?

a. the properties of the starting and ending materials are different
B. light or heat from the release energy
C. the properties of the starting and ending materials are teh same
D. bubbles or odor from the release of gas
E. formation of a precipitate (a solid) or a permanent color change

C. the properties of the starting and ending materials are the same

Which of the following represent a physical change?

A. when ethanol burns, it is converted to carbon dioxide and water
b. sugar dissolves when added to water
C. the explosion of astick of dynamite
D. the tarnishing of silver

B. sugar dissolves when added to water

Which of the following represents a physical change only?

A. liquid water freezing into ice cubes
b. wood burning to form ashes
C. molded cheese
D. milk turning sour
E. using gasoline to drive a car or the burning of propane in a camping stove

A. liquid water freezing into ice cubes

Which of the following represents a physical change only?

A. digesting a sandwich
B. mixing ammonia and bleach
C. barbecuing a steak
D. adding electricity to water to produce hydrogen and oxygen gas
E. chopping a piece of wood

E. chopping a piece of wood

To determine if a block of metal is pure gold, the metal can be heated until it just begins to melt; then the temperature of the liquid can be compared to the freezing point of gold.

True or false?

True

If 1 gram of ice needs a certain amount of heat to melt, the same amount of energy must be removed to convert it back to ice at its melting point.

True or False?

True

Evaporated ethanol can be isolated by cooling, without changing its disinfectant properties.

True or False?

True

After being heated to above its boiling point, methanol is no longer methanol but smoethign else.

True or False?

False

The "disappearance" of mmothballs is an example of ______.

A. evaporation
B. condensation
C. sublimation
D. melting
E. freezing

C. sublimation

Margarine being transformed into a liquid while frying an egg is an example of _____.

A. evaporation
B. freezing
C. condensation
D. melting
E. sublimation

D. melting

Liquid nitrogen being transformed into a colorless gas is an example of ______.

A. sublimation
B. evaporation
C. freezing
D. condensation
E. melting

B. evaporation

Water droplets forming on the mirror of the medicine cabinet while taking a shower is an example of

A. freezing
B. evaporation
C. melting
D. sublimation
E. condensation

E. condensation

The pond ices in winter is an example of ____.

A. melting
b. condensation
C. sublimation
D. evaporation
E. freezing

E. freezing

While heating water in a tea kettle , part of it disappears is an example of _____.

A. evaporation
B. condensation
C. freezing
D. melting
E. sublimation

A. evaporation

Ice cream liquifies on a hot day is an example of _____.

A. condensation
B. melting
C. evaporation
D. sublimation
E. freezing

B. melting

Water collecting in a gas tank of a car on a humid day is an example of ______.

A. condensation
b. freezing
C. sublimation
D. melting
E. evaporation

A. condensation

A block of dry ice starts smoking once the freezer door in an ice cream parlor is opened is an example of _____.

A. sublimation
B. melting
c. freezing
D. condensation
E. evaporation

A. sublimation

Which term best completes this definition?
An attempt to explain why a law exists is a(n) _____.

A. hypothesis
B. law
C. experiment
d. theory
E. model

D. theory

Which term best completes this definition?
A(n) _____ summarizes the facts into general statements, many times these are mathematical relationships.

A. theory
B. model
C. law
D. experiment
E. hypothesis

C. law

Which term best completes this definition?
A physical picture used to illustrate a theory is a(n) _____.

A. theory
B. experiment
C. law
D. hypothesis
E. model

E. model

Which term best completes this definition?
procedures carried out to study some phenomemenon are called ______.

A. law
B. hypothesis
C. experiment
D. model
E. theory

C. experiment

Which term best completes this definition?
An iticial attempt to explain why a law exists is a(n) _____.

A. experiment
B. theory
C. hypothesis
D. model
E. law

C. hypothesis

It is scientifically proper to construct a theory without doing an experiments to test it.

True or False?

False

What is the difference between a hypothesis and a scientific theory?

A. A theory requires an experiment and a hypothesis does not.
B. A hypothesis is a tentative proposal and a theory is a tested proposal
C. a hypothesis requires an experiment and a theory does not
D. A theory is a tentatie proposal and a hypothesis is a tested proposal
E. none of the above

B. A hypothesis is a tentative proposal and a theory is a tested proposal

What is the difference between a scientific theory and a natural law?

A. A theory explains behavior and a law states a measurable relationship
B. A theory is a tentative proposal and a law is a tested proposal
C. A law is a tentative proposal and a theory is a tested proposal
D. A law explains behavior and a theory states a measurable relationship
E. none of the above

A. A theory explains behavior and a law states a measurable relationship

Which of the following statements is a scientific theory or model?

A. the energy derived from a change in mass is found by E=mc2
B. the mass of substances, before and after a chemical change, is the same
C. Atoms contain protons, neutrons, and electrons
D. If the volume of a gas doubles, the pressure decreases by a factor of two
E. none of the above

C. Atoms contain protons, neutrons, and electrons

Physical or Chemical Change?

Perfume Evaporating on your skin

Physical

Are these Physical or Chemical Changes?

Butter melting and mixing sugar in water.

Physical

Physical or chemical changes?

Wood rotting, autumn leaves changing color

Chemical

Physical or Chemical Changes?

Burning sugar, Digesting Food

Chemical

Physical or Chemcial Change?

Melting Copper Metal

Physical

Physical or Chemical Changes?

Freezing water to make ice cubes
Melting gold to make jewelry
boiling water for soup
tearing a piece of aluminum foil
Grating Cheese, Melting Cheese
Mixing 2 cheeses in a Bowl

Physical

Chemical or Physical?

Burning gasoline in a lawnmower
Fermenting of Cheese

Chemical

Physical or Chemical Changes?

Boil, Melt, Crush, Condense, Crumple
Freeze, Grind, Vaporize, Sublimation

Physical

Physical or Chemical Changes?

Burn(Combustion), Corrode, Ferment, Rust, Oxidize, Tarnish, Rot, Photosynthesis, Reactivity

Chemical

Physical or Chemical?

Fogging a mirror with your breath
Breaking a Bone
Slicing potatoes for fries
Mixing sugar with coffe
Paper ripping
Mixing food coloring with water
Writing on Paper

Physical Changes

Physical or chemical Changes?

Mending a broken bone
Burning Paper
Frying Chicken
A nail rusting
Food molding(rotting)

Chemical Changes

Who believed that matter could b infinitely subdivided?

A. Democritus
B. Aristotle
C. Dmitri Mendeleev
D. Antoine Lavoisier

B. Aristotle

Who proved that matter is always conserved?

A. Antoine Lavoisier
B. Aristotle
C. Democritus
D. Dmitri Mendeleev

A. Antoine Lavoisier

The Law of Conservation of Mass states that ______. The Law of Constant Composition states that ______.

Law of Conservation of Mass: matter can neither bew created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction.
Law of Constant Composition: a pure compound always contains the same percent by mass of each element making up that compound

What is the mass of a single product that is formed when 2.5 g hydrogen reacts completely with 7.5 g oxygen?

A. 10.0 g
B. 9.5 g
C. 7.5 g
D. 5.0 g

A. 10.0 g

If . 230 g of magnesium burns in oxygen to produce 4.03 g of magnesium oxide, what is the mass of reacting oxygen gas?

A. 6.46 g
B. 4.03 g
C. 2.43 g
D. .585 g
E. Impossible to predict

D. . 585 g

Who is given credit for discovering the electron?

A. James Chadwick
B. E. Goldstein
C. J.J. Thomson
D. James Chadwick

C. J.J. Thomson

Who is given credit for discovering (with Thomson) the proton?

A. James Chadwick
B. E. Goldstein
C. J.J. Thomson
D. John Dalton

B) E. Goldstein

Who is given credit for demonstarting the existence of the neutron?

A. J.J. Thomson
B. James Chadwick
C. John Dalton
D. E. Goldstein

James Chadwick

According to the experiments of Ernest Rutherford, where can a majority of a given atom's mass be found?

A. in concentric layers of sperical shape
B. at the center of an approximately spherical atom
C. as small pieces orbiting a common center in circular paths
D. scattered randomly throughout an approximately cube-shaped atom

B. at the center of an approximately spherical atom

An alpha particle consists of two protons and two neutrons.

True or False?

True

After experiments of Rutherford,the structure of individual atoms was roughly described as ______.

A. positively charged center and mostly empty space
B. positively charged, low-mass pieces in orbit around a massive, negatively charged center
C. positively charged pieces in orbit around a low-mass, negatively charged center
D. an even mixture of mass and charge scattered through a spherical shape

A. positively charged center and mostly empty space

Two isotopes of the same element differ only in the number of protons found in the nucleus.

True of False?

False (they have a different number of NEUTRONS)

Heavy water is ____.

A. water that contains cations such as magnesium, ferric and calcium
B. water whose hydrogens are deuterium
C. water whose hydrogen carry one neutron
D. both B. and C.

D. both B. and C.

How many neutrons are thre in an atome of tritium? How many protons are there in an atom of deuterium?

A. 1 neutron, 0 protons
B. 2 neutrons, 1 proton
C. 3 neutrons, 3 protons
D. 4 neutrons, 3 protons
E. 0 neutrons, 4 protons

B. 2 neutrons, 1 proton

How is the term "mass number" and the term "atomic number" defined for a given atom or isotope?

Mass number: as the sum of protons and neutrons its nucleus contains.
Atomic Number: as the number of protons its nucleus contains.

A neutral atom's atomic number is equal to ____.

A. the number of nucleons
B the sum of protons and neutrons
C. the number of electrons
D. the number of neutrons

C. the number of electons

What is the charge on a neutron, proton, and electron?

0, +1, -1

Which of the following pairs are isotopes?

A. Ca+2 and Mg+2
B. 199Hg and 200Hg
C. 18O and 19F
D. 238U and 238Np

B. 199Hg and 200Hg

An atomic mass unit, also known as amu, is equal to ___ the mass of a 12C atom.

A. 1/12
B. 1/1840
C. 1/6
D. 1/2

A. 1/12

The breakthrough Dmitiri Mendeleev had when constructing the periodic table occurred ____.

A. when Sir James Chadwick discovered the neutron
B. when Thomson and E. Goldstein discovered the proton
C. when Mendeleev placed the elements in a sequence of increasing atomic mass
D. when J.J. Thomson discovered the electron

C. when Mendeleev placed the elements in a sequence of increasing atomic mass

What name is commonly given to the elements of Group 1, Group 2, and Group 18 of the periodic table?

Group 1- Alkali metals
Group 2- Alkaline metals
Group 18- Noble gases

What name is commonly given to the elements of Group 16 and Group 17 of the periodic table?

Group 16-Chalcogens
Group 17- Halogens

Where are the Lanthanides and Actinides?

Below the periodic table, although can be moved up next to 57 & 89

What do these elements have in common?

B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, At

They are all metalloids

What do these elements have in common?

C, N, O, F, P, S, Cl, Se, Br, I, Uuo

They are nonmetals

Both actinides and lanthanides are called rare earth elements.

True of False?

False, only lanthanides are rare earth elements

Elements in Group 2 are _____?

A. metals and liquids
B. metals and gases
C. metals and solids
D. non-metals and gases
E. non-metals and liquids

C. metals and solids

Ions are _____.

A. atoms or groups of atoms with a net electrical charge that is not equal to zero
B. atoms that have lost electrons
c. atoms that have gained electrons
D. all of the above

D. all of the above

True of False?
Anions are atoms that have gained electrons. Cations are atoms that have lost electrons
Anions have more electrons than protons. Catons have more protons than electrons.
Anions have a negative charge. Cations have a positive charge

True

Ionization energy ____ as one goes DOWN a group and ____ as one goes from LEFT TO RIGHT in a period.

Decreases; Increases

It is easier to remove an electron from the outside shell of a K atom than from the outside shell of a Na atom.

True of False

True

One needs to supply energy from an outside source to form a cation from a neutral atom.

True or False

True

How do you determine the MASS OF THE PRODUCT ?

Just add the grams together! Super easy!

How do you determine the MASS OF THE REACTING x?

Subtract!

If you combine the # of protons and the # of neutrons, what will you find?

Mass Number

How can you determine the number of Protons in an atom?

Atomic Number is the same as the number of protons

upper 12, bottom 6 C/ 13/6C and 14/6C are all examples of _____.

A. Isotopes
B. Elements
C. Cations
D. Anions

A. Isotopes (Diff. versions of the same element that have diff. #'s of neutrons)

Where are the transition metals located on the periodic table?

Groups 3 through 12

How do you determine the number of neutrons in an atom?

Round the atomic mass to closest whole number, then subtract the atomic number from it.

Cations are positive and anions are negative.

True of False?

True

The _______ is the number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus.

Mass Number

The wavelengths in infrared radiation are larger than those of the ultraviolet region.

True of False?

True

The shorter the wavelength(nm), the higher the energy.

True of False

True

What is the speed of light?

A. 3.00 x 10^8
B. 125 m/s
C. 186,000 m/s
D. It depends on wavelength

A. 3 x 10^8

Which of the following types of radiation has the highest velocity?

A. ultraviolet
B. visible
C. infrared
D. X rays
E. all radiation has the same velocity

E. All radiation has the same velocity

What is the main difference between "classical physics" and "quantum physics"?

A. Classical physics requires that only certain, allowed values for energy be used.
B. Quantum physics can ONLY describe the behavior of very small objects, like atoms and molecules.
C. Quantum physics requires that only certain, allowed values for energy be used.
D. Quantum physics requires the speed of light to be a constant value.

C. Quantum physics requires that only certain, allowed values for energy be used.

Which feature of Bohr's atomic model is no longer accepted as true by today's scientists?

A. that electrons have only certain, allowed energy values
B. that each shell (principal quantum energy level) can hold a maximum of 2n^2 electrons
C. that most of an atom's mass is located within the nucleus
D. that electrons orbit the nucleus in discrete-energy circular paths around a central, positively charged nucleus

D. that electrons orbit the nucleus in discrete-energy circular paths around a central, positively charged nucleus

In a single atom, what is the maximum number of electrons that the n=5 shell can hold?

A. 18
B. 32
C. 50
D. 14
E. 10

C. 50

Which of the following energy-level changes for an electron of a hydrogen atom is most energetic?

A. 4 --> 1
B. 6 --> 1
C. 5 --> 1
D. 3 --> 1
E. All changes have the same energy

B. 6 --> 1

How many electrons can be 'stored' in a completely filled 4f subshell? In a completely filled p-block? In a completely filled n=4 shell?

A. 14, 6, 8
B. 28, 12, 18
C. 14, 6, 32
D. 7, 3, 2

C. 14, 6, 32

The correct order of increasing energy in the following subshells is:

A. 2p, 3s, 3d, 3p, 4s
B. 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d
C. 2p, 3s, 4s, 3p, 3d
D. 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d, 4s

B. 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d
(because they overlap, don't forget!)

Shells get larger as the principal quantum numer n increases.

True of False?

True

Which of the following subshells is the largest in size?

A. 1s
B. 2s
C. 3s
D. 4s
E. All s subshells are the same size

E. All s subshells are the same size

An electron in the excited state does not necessarily return to a ground state in a single jump.
The observed line spectra of electrically excited gas samples tend to support the notion that electron energies are quantized.
The atomic radius can be calculated by x-ray diffraction

True or False?

True

In regards to atomic size atoms tend to decrease in size as one moves from left to right across a period.

True of False?

True

Ionization energy increases from left to right and increases from bottom to top.

True or False?

True

The valence shell _____.

A. is the outermost occupied shell in an atom
B. is the lowest energy shell in an atom
C. always contains eight electrons
D. is always the same for anions and cations

A. is the outermost occupied shell in an atom

The elements of Group 18 are almost entirely non-reactive with any of the other chemical elements. Which of the following statements best explains this observed behavior?

A. Group 18 elements comply with the octet rule
B. Group 18 elements are so rare that no one has ever studied their reactive properties in any detail
C. Group 18 elements are all gases, and gases are generally non-reactive
D. no explanation given here can explain it

A. Group 18 elements comply with the octet rule

A non-metal is an element that tends to ____ valence electrons in chemical reactions, becoming a(n) ____ in the process. A metal is an element that tends to ____ valence electrons in chemical reactions, becoming a(n) ____ in the process.

Gain, Anion, Lose, Cation

Which of the following elements never obeys the octect rule?

A. Chlorine
B. Hydrogen
C. Carbon
D. Nitrogen

B. Hydrogen

Atoms in which of the groups will likely gain three electrons? Atoms in which of the groups will likely lose three electrons?

Gain- Group 15
Lose: Group 13

Predict the number of valence electrons for a Group 2 element. predict the number of valence electrons for a Group 14 element.

A. Group 2: 2, Group 14: 14
B. Group 2: 8, Group 14: 3
C. Group 2: 14, Group 14: 2
D. Group 2: 2, Group 14: 4
E. Group 2: 3, Group 14: 8

D. Group 2: 2, Group 14: 4

Group 2 has a predictable ionic charge of two positive and Group 16 has a predictable ionic charge of two negative.

True of False?

True

The scientist credited with developing the current mathematical model of the atom is ____.

A. Thomson
B. Goldstein
C. Shrodinger

C. Shrodinger

Modern atomic theory places electrons into complex mathematical probability functions call orbits.

True or False?

False, they're called ORBITALS

The 95% boundary indicates the area where 95% of the time the electron may be found.

True or False?

True

Which orbital is dumbbell-shaped? Which orbital is spherical shape?

A. dumbbell-5g, spherical-4d
B. dumbbell-2s, spherical-3p
C. dumbbell- 3p, spherical-2s
D. dumbbell-4d, spherical-5f

C. dumbbell- 3p, spherical-2s

How do you determine the maximum amount of electrons that can be found in an n=5 shell?

2n^2 = 2 x 5^2 = 50

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