Oroonoko, Aphra Behn
Jamoan, King of Coramantian, Trefrey William Byam, Colonel Martin, Bannister
Adonais, Percy Shelley
Elegy for John Keats, pastoral elegy (invocation of the muse, sympathy of nature with death, procession of mourners, sorrow to consolation)
Ozymandias, Percy Shelley
I am Ozymandias, king of kings
The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, Henry Fielding
Sophia Western, Blifil, Squire Allworthy, Lady Bridget; mocks the moral rigidity of fashionable writers; "An author ought to consider himself, not as a gentleman who gives a private or ellemosynary treat, but rather as one who keeps a public ordinary"
Shamela, Henry Fielding
mocks Richardson's Pamela for its moral righteousness (Mrs. Booby)
Joseph Andrews, Henry Fielding
servant-class brother of Pamela (Richardson), high comedy made out of his resistance to losing his virginity out of wedlock
Clarissa, Samuel Richardson
Clarissa (tragic heroine), Lovelace (lecherous), rapes Clarissa who dies virtuous and chaste
Northanger Abbey, Jane Austen
Catherine Morland, the Allens, Henry Tilney, John Thorpe; parody of the Gothic novel (Radcliffe)
Wuthering Heights, Emily Bronte
Heathcliff, Catherine love relationship and how it destroys them (because of social restraints), narrator: Lockwood, house: Thrushcross Grange, Nelly Dean, Mr. Earnshaw
Vanity Fair, William Thackeray
Satire of middle-class English society, Becky Sharp, Amelia Sedley, George Osborne, Joseph Sedley
Sense and Sensibility, Jane Austen
Marianne Dashwood, Elinor Dashwood, Lucy Steel, John Willoughby, Colonel Brandon
Emma, Jane Austen
Emma Woodhouse, Mr. Knightley, Miss Bates, Frank Churchill, Harriet Smith, Jane Fairfax
Mansfield Park, Jane Austen
Fanny Price, Mrs. Norris
Persuasion, Jane Austen
Sir Walter, Elizabeth Elliot, Anne Elliot, Frederick Wentworth
invented the pathetic fallacy
On Liberty, John Stuart Mill
"tyranny of the majority", "over himself, over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign"
The Subjection of Women, John Stuart Mill
Progressive work in which Mill changes the mistreatment of women from a philosophical, moral and economic perspective.
Sartor Resartus, Thomas Carlyle
factual and fictional, serious and satirical; on fake philosopher; "Philosophy of Clothes" *Blumine, Dumbdrudge, Hofrath Heuschrecke, Weissnichtwo
Apologia Pro Vita Sua, Cardinal Newman
"A defence of one's life" defence of the religious opinions of John Henry Newman (Catholic)
Culture and Anarchy, Matthew Arnold
"sweetness and light", "philistine" (popularized by the author)
Dover Beach, Matthew Arnold
The sea is calm to-night. The tide is full, the moon lies fair Upon the straits;—on the French coast the light Gleams and is gone; the cliffs of England stand, Glimmering and vast, out in the tranquil bay. Come to the window, sweet is the night-air! Only, from the long line of spray Where the sea meets the moon-blanch'd land, Listen! you hear the grating roar Of pebbles which the waves draw back, and fling, At their return, up the high strand, Begin, and cease, and then again begin, With tremulous cadence slow, and bring The eternal note of sadness in.
pen name for Mary Ann Evans
The central character, Dorothea Brooke, is a beautiful and serious-minded young woman who yearns for knowledge and the power to help others. She rejects a titled young man in favour of the Reverend Edward Casaubon, a middle-aged clergyman who, she imagines, will teach her and engage her in great works. Her marriage proves a terrible mistake, as Casaubon disdains her efforts to assist him in his research, and Dorothea begins to realize the meanness of his intellectual ambitions. Meanwhile, she makes the acquaintance of his poor relation, Will Ladislaw, who truly admires her and who matches her in passion and ambition.
The Pickwick Papers, Charles Dickens
The novel's main character, Mr. Pickwick, is a kind old gentleman, the founder of the Pickwick Club. Mr. Pickwick travels with his friends, Mr. Nathaniel Winkle, Mr. Augustus Snodgrass, and Mr. Tracy Tupman, and their adventures are the chief theme of the novel.
Pip - an orphan, and the protagonist. Pip is to be trained as a blacksmith, a low but skilled and honest profession, but strives to rise above his class after meeting Estella Havisham. Joe Gargery - Pip's brother-in-law, and his first father figure. Joe represents the poor but honest life that Pip rejects. Miss Havisham - Wealthy spinster who takes Pip on as a companion, and who Pip is led to believe is his benefactor. Miss Havisham does not discourage this as it fits into her own spiteful plans. Estella [Havisham] - Miss Havisham's adopted daughter, who Pip pursues romantically throughout the novel. Estella represents the life of wealth and culture that Pip strives for. Since her ability to love any man (or anyone for that matter) has been ruined by Miss Havisham, she is unable to return Pip's passion. She warns Pip of this repeatedly, but he refuses to believe her.
Oliver Twist, Charles Dickens
Oliver Twist Fagin Bill Sikes The Artful Dodger Noah Claypole Mr. Brownlow
Hard Times, Charles Dickens
Mr. Thomas Gradgrind, Josiah Bounderby, Louisa Gradgrind, Stephen Blackpool
The Bait, John Donne
COME live with me, and be my love, And we will some new pleasures prove Of golden sands, and crystal brooks, With silken lines and silver hooks. There will the river whisp'ring run Warm'd by thy eyes, more than the sun ; And there th' enamour'd fish will stay, Begging themselves they may betray.
The Canonization, John Donne
FOR God's sake hold your tongue, and let me love ; Or chide my palsy, or my gout ; My five gray hairs, or ruin'd fortune flout ; With wealth your state, your mind with arts improve ; Take you a course, get you a place, Observe his Honour, or his Grace ; Or the king's real, or his stamp'd face Contemplate ; what you will, approve, So you will let me love.
The Flea, John Donne
Cruel and sudden, hast thou since Purpled thy nail in blood of innocence? Wherein could this flea guilty be, Except in that drop which it suck'd from thee? Yet thou triumph'st, and say'st that thou Find'st not thyself nor me the weaker now. 'Tis true ; then learn how false fears be ; Just so much honour, when thou yield'st to me, Will waste, as this flea's death took life from thee.
To Donne, Ben Jonson
1 Donne, the delight of Phoebus and each Muse 2 Who, to thy one, all other brains refuse; 3 Whose every work of thy most early wit 4 Came forth example, and remains so yet; 5 Longer a-knowing than most wits do live; 6 And which no affection praise enough can give! 7 To it, thy language, letters, arts, best life, 8 Which might with half mankind maintain a strife. 9 All which I meant to praise, and yet I would; 10 But leave, because I cannot as I should!
A Valediction Forbidding Mourning, John Donne
AS virtuous men pass mildly away, And whisper to their souls to go, Whilst some of their sad friends do say, "Now his breath goes," and some say, "No."
The Sun Rising, John Donne
This poem is an aubade, or a poem or song of or about lovers separating at dawn. BUSY old fool, unruly Sun, Why dost thou thus, Through windows, and through curtains, call on us ? Must to thy motions lovers' seasons run ? Saucy pedantic wretch, go chide Late school-boys and sour prentices, Go tell court-huntsmen that the king will ride, Call country ants to harvest offices ; Love, all alike, no season knows nor clime, Nor hours, days, months, which are the rags of time.
Upon Julia's Clothes, Robert Herrick
WHENAS in silks my Julia goes, Then, then, methinks, how sweetly flows That liquefaction of her clothes. Next, when I cast mine eyes and see That brave vibration each way free; O how that glittering taketh me!
To the Virgins, To Make Much Of Time, Robert Herrick
GATHER ye rosebuds while ye may, Old time is still a-flying: And this same flower that smiles to-day To-morrow will be dying. The glorious lamp of heaven, the sun, The higher he's a-getting, The sooner will his race be run, And nearer he's to setting. That age is best which is the first, When youth and blood are warmer; But being spent, the worse, and worst Times still succeed the former. Then be not coy, but use your time, And while ye may go marry: For having lost but once your prime You may for ever tarry.
To My Beloved Master William Shakespeare, Ben Jonson
He was not of an age, but for all time !
Volpone, Ben Jonson
Volpone fakes a long illness to pique the expectations of all who aspire to his fortune. Mosca tells each of them, Voltore, Corbaccio, and Corvino, in their turns, that they are to be named Volpone's heir, thanks to Mosca's influence. Mosca then announces Volpone's impending death. The hopeful heirs shower Volpone with gifts. Corbaccio disinherits his own son in Volpone's favour; Corvino offers Volpone his wife. Complications ensue, and just as Volpone is about to be outsmarted by Mosca, he reveals all in open court and the characters are punished according to their crime and station.
Easter Wings, George Herbert
shape poem, wings, metaphysical
The Altar, George Herbert
shape poem, altar, metaphysical
Tess of D'Urbervilles, Thomas Hardy
Abandoned by Angel, Tess is lured into a liaison with Alec d'Urberville, who comes back into her life by chance. When Alec lays eyes on Tess once more, he ruthlessly hunts her down, determined to win her back into his life of sin. Tess, influenced by her desprate situation and the perception that her husband will never rejoin her, yeilds to Alec's determination and allows him to support her while she lives with him. Eventually Angel returns, repentant, to reclaim her, and Tess murders Alec in order to be with her legal husband. They flee together, but the police catch up with them at Stonehenge, in a memorable finale. Tess is hanged for the murder of Alec.
The Darkling Thrush, Thomas Hardy
I leant upon a coppice gate When Frost was spectre-grey, And Winter's dregs made desolate The weakening eye of day. The tangled bine-stems scored the sky Like strings of broken lyres, And all mankind that haunted nigh Had sought their household fires.
Prometheus Unbound, Percy Shelley
It is inspired by Aechylus's Prometheus Bound and concerns the final release from captivity of Prometheus.
Frost at Midnight, Samuel Taylor Coleridge
The Frost performs its secret ministry, Unhelped by any wind. The owlet's cry Came loud---and hark, again! loud as before. The inmates of my cottage, all at rest, Have left me to that solitude, which suits Abstruser musings: save that at my side My cradled infant slumbers peacefully. `Tis calm indeed! so calm, that it disturbs And vexes meditation with its strange And extreme silentness. Sea, hill, and wood, This populous village! Sea, and hill, and wood, With all the numberless goings-on of life, Inaudible as dreams! the thin blue flame Lies on my low-burnt fire, and quivers not; Only that film, which fluttered on the grate, Still flutters there, the sole unquiet thing. Methinks, its motion in this hush of nature Gives it dim sympathies with me who live, Making it a companionable form, Whose puny flaps and freaks the idling Spirit By its own moods interprets, every where Echo or mirror seeking of itself, And makes a toy of Thought.
Break, Break, Break, Alfred Tennyson
Break, break, break, On thy cold gray stones, O Sea! And I would that my tongue could utter The thoughts that arise in me. O well for the fisherman's boy, That he shouts with his sister at play! O well for the sailor lad, That he sings in his boat on the bay! And the stately ships go on To their haven under the hill: But O for the touch of a vanish'd hand, And the sound of a voice that is still! Break, break, break, At the foot of thy crags, O Sea! But the tender grace of a day that is dead Will never come back to me.
Ulysses, Alfred Tennyson
It little profits that an idle king, By this still hearth, among these barren crags, Match'd with an aged wife, I mete and dole Unequal laws unto a savage race, That hoard, and sleep, and feed, and know not me.
Ulysses, Alfred Tennyson
"Tho' much is taken, much abides; and tho' We are not now that strength which in the old days Moved earth and heaven; that which we are, we are; One equal-temper of heroic hearts, Made weak by time and fate, but strong in will To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield."
Ulysses, Alfred Tennyson
This is my son, mine own Telemachus, To whom I leave the sceptre and the isle- Well-loved of me, discerning to fulfil This labour, by slow prudence to make mild A rugged people, and thro' soft degrees Subdue them to the useful and the good. Most blameless is he, centred in the sphere Of common duties, decent not to fail In offices of tenderness, and pay Meet adoration to my household gods, When I am gone. He works his work, I mine.
In Memoriam A.H.H., Alfred Tennyson
t is a requiem for the poet's Cambridge friend Arthur Henry Hallam, who died suddenly of a stroke in Vienna in 1833, but it is also much more. Written over a period of 17 years, it can be seen as reflective of Victorian society at the time, and the poem dicusses many of the issues that were beginning to be questioned. It is the work in which Tennyson reaches his highest musical peaks and his poetic experience comes full circle. It is generally regarded as one of the great poetic works of the British 19th century.
Pied Beauty, Gerard Manley Hopkins
GLORY be to God for dappled things— For skies of couple-colour as a brinded cow; For rose-moles all in stipple upon trout that swim; Fresh-firecoal chestnut-falls; finches' wings; Landscape plotted and pieced—fold, fallow, and plough; And áll trádes, their gear and tackle and trim. All things counter, original, spare, strange; Whatever is fickle, freckled (who knows how?) With swift, slow; sweet, sour; adazzle, dim; He fathers-forth whose beauty is past change: Praise him.
Porphyria's Lover, Robert Browning
The rain set early in to-night, The sullen wind was soon awake, It tore the elm-tops down for spite, And did its worst to vex the lake: I listen'd with heart fit to break. When glided in Porphyria; straight She shut the cold out and the storm, And kneel'd and made the cheerless grate Blaze up, and all the cottage warm; Which done, she rose, and from her form Withdrew the dripping cloak and shawl, And laid her soil'd gloves by, untied Her hat and let the damp hair fall, And, last, she sat down by my side And call'd me. When no voice replied, She put my arm about her waist, And made her smooth white shoulder bare, And all her yellow hair displaced, And, stooping, made my cheek lie there, And spread, o'er all, her yellow hair, Murmuring how she loved me—she Too weak, for all her heart's endeavour, To set its struggling passion free From pride, and vainer ties dissever, And give herself to me for ever.
My Last Duchess, Robert Browning
That's my last Duchess painted on the wall, Looking as if she were alive. I call That piece a wonder, now: Frà Pandolf's hands Worked busily a day, and there she stands. Will't please you sit and look at her? I said "Frà Pandolf" by design, for never read Strangers like you that pictured countenance, The depth and passion of its earnest glance, But to myselfthey turned (since none puts by The curtain I have drawn for you, but I) And seemed as they would ask me, if they durst, How such a glance came there; so, not the first Are you to turn and ask thus. Sir, 'twas not Her husband's presence only, called that spot Of joy into the Duchess' cheek: perhaps Frà Pandolf chanced to say "Her mantle laps Over my Lady's wrist too much," or "Paint Must never hope to reproduce the faint Half-flush that dies along her throat": such stuff Was courtesy, she thought, and cause enough For calling up that spot of joy. She had A heart -- how shall I say? -- too soon made glad, Too easily impressed; she liked whate'er She looked on, and her looks went everywhere.
always writes dramatic monologue poetry
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
he founder of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood,an avart guarde group that believed in the primacy of mimetic and detailed art (painting in particular)
Gerard Manley Hopkins
Utilized sprung rhythm ( Sprung rhythm is structured around feet with a variable number of syllables, generally between one and four syllables per foot, with the stress always falling on the first syllable in a foot) and broke from running rhythm
Playboy of the Western World, J.M. Synge
an unflattering portrayal of the working class Irish. It is set in a cottage in County Mayo (on the North-West coast of Ireland) during the early 1900s. It tells the story of Christy Mahon, a young man supposedly running away having killed his father. Christy arrives at the cottage, and the locals are more interested in vicariously enjoying his story than in condemning his morality.
The Plough and the Stars, Sean O'Casey
deal with the impact of the Irish Civil War on the working class poor of the city. T
A Room With a View, E.M. Forster
Charlotte Bartlett, Lucy Honeychurch, Mr. Emerson, George Emerson, Mr. Beebe, Eleanor Lavish, Cecil Vyse; tells the story of a young Englishwoman whose encounter with a handsome young man in Florence may interfere with her marriage plans.
Howard's End, E.M. Forster
Margaret, Helen, and Tibby Schlegel (artistic, social, emotional); Charles, Paul and Evie Wilcox (business)
Where Angel's Dare to Tread, E.M. Forster
Caroline Abbott, Lilia Herriton ; On a journey to Tuscany with her young friend and travelling companion Caroline Abbott, widowed Lilia Herriton falls in love with both Italy and a handsome Italian much younger than herself, and decides to stay. Furious, her dead husband's family send Lilia's brother-in-law and his sister to Italy to prevent a misalliance, but they arrive too late. Lilia marries the Italian and in due course becomes pregnant again. When she dies giving birth to her child, the Herritons consider it both their right and their duty to travel to Monteriano to obtain custody of the infant so that he can be raised as an Englishman.
Passage to India, E.M. Forster
Adela Quested, Dr. Aziz, The Marabar Caves
Road to Colonus, E.M. Forster
Mr. Lucas, Ethel Lucas (retelling of Oedipus?)
Aspects of the Novel, E.M. Forster
flat and round characters
The Second Coming, William Yeats
From this poem comes the name of Chinua Achebe's novel Things Fall Apart. Turning and turning in the widening gyre The falcon cannot hear the falconer; Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold; Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world, The blood-dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere The ceremony of innocence is drowned; The best lack all convictions, while the worst Are full of passionate intensity.Surely some revelation is at hand; Surely the Second Coming is at hand. The Second Coming! Hardly are those words out When a vast image out of Spiritus Mundi Troubles my sight: somewhere in sands of the desert A shape with lion body and the head of a man, A gaze blank and pitiless as the sun, Is moving its slow thighs, while all about it Reel shadows of the indignant desert birds. The darkness drops again; but now I know That twenty centuries of stony sleep Were vexed to nightmare by a rocking cradle, And what rough beast, its hour come round at last, Slouches towards Bethlehem to be born?
Sailing to Byzantium, William Yeats
That is no country for old men. The young In one another's arms, birds in the trees - Those dying generations - at their song, The salmon-falls, the mackerel-crowded seas, Fish, flesh, or fowl, commend all summer long Whatever is begotten, born, and dies. Caught in that sensual music all neglect Monuments of unageing intellect.
In Memory of W.B. Yeats, W.H. Auden
But in the importance and noise of to-morrow When the brokers are roaring like beasts on the floor of the Bourse, And the poor have the sufferings to which they are fairly accustomed, And each in the cell of himself is almost convinced of his freedom, A few thousand will think of this day As one thinks of a day when one did something slightly unusual. What instruments we have agree The day of his death was a dark cold day.
Musee des Beaux Arts, W.H. Auden
In Breughel's Icarus, for instance: how everything turns away Quite leisurely from the disaster; the ploughman may Have heard the splash, the forsaken cry, But for him it was not an important failure; the sun shone As it had to on the white legs disappearing into the green Water; and the expensive delicate ship that must have seen Something amazing, a boy falling out of the sky, had somewhere to get to and sailed calmly on.