When sovereignty is embodied in the person of the ruler., The theory that the monarch is supreme and can exercise full and complete power unilaterally.
the idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God.
L'etat, cest moi
I am the state- Louis 14 Fr
Henry IV (1589-1610)
"Paris is worth a mass" survived the ST Bartholomew's day massacre ; "a chicken in every peasants pot" ; Edict of Nantes financial minister Sully Protestant
Nobles of the robe
New Fr nobles who bought titles from king and T/f are loyal to king ; led to weakening of the nobility
raison d' etat
"reason of state" Richelieu : ends justifies the means ; immoral OK as long as ends met ;ie support Protestants against Hapsburgs
The last aristocratic revolt against a French monarch effect Louis 14 as a child.
A government's use of private collectors to collect taxes. Individuals contract with the government to collect a fixed amount for the government and are permitted to keep as profit everything they collect over that amount ; corrupt and hated
French finance minister who promoted mercantilism and economic self sufficiency for Fr.;see notes for other accomp
a set of economic principles based on policies which stress government regulation of economic activities to benefit the home country
Fr colony ; part of Mercantilistic plan
William of Orange (1672-1702)
Former Stadholder of Netherlands who hates Louis 14 and becomes King of Eng
War of the League of Augsburg
Fr. vs HRE, SP, Sweden, Dutch, ; L14 invades Netherl. in middle William of Orange b/c the King Of Eng. and brings Eng into war;
War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713)
Cause- to prevent the fr from controlling both the Fr and Sp thrones major battle at Blenheim; John Churchill
formed to keep balance of Power in W of Sp Succ. -Eng , Dutch, HRE, Brandenburg, etc
Peace of Utrecht (1713)
End war of Sp Succ - Louis grandson gets throne in SP but will never be king of Fr. ; Eng big winner!
Causes of decline of Spain
overextended in World ;Sp econ hurt by expelling of m/class -moors and jews; bad kings ie Charles II
Duc de Saint Simon
Fr noble who criticized Louis 14
Combination of Scotland, Ireland and wales w/ England
The theory developed in early modern England and spread elsewhere that royal power should be subject to legal and legislative checks. (p. 452)
James I (1603-1625)
Eng monarch from Scotland ; believes in divine right
Charles I (1625-1649)
believing in the divine right of kings, ruled w/out parliament for 11yrs; unpopular extended ship money taxes; lost head in Eng Revolution
Petition of Right (1628)
a statement of civil liberties sent by the English Parliament to Charles I . Refusal by Parliament to finance the king's unpopular foreign policy had caused his government to exact forced loans and to quarter troops in subjects' houses as an economy measure;was based upon earlier statutes and charters and asserted four principles: no taxes may be levied without consent of Parliament; no subject may be imprisoned without cause shown (reaffirmation of the right of habeas corpus); no soldiers may be quartered upon the citizenry; martial law may not be used in time of peace. sign by charles
Name from the fact that by a unique Act of Parliament, it could only be dissolved with the agreement of the members, and those members did not agree to its dissolution until after the English Civil War and at the end of Interregnum (period in between kings) in 1660. It sat from 1640 until 1649, when it was purged by the New Model Army of those who were not sympathetic to the Army's concerns.
An Act of Parliament reluctantly agreed to by Charles I (who said it reduced his sovereign powers) which stated that there had to be a parliament of at least 50 days duration every three years.
English Civil War
1642 - 1649; Puritans (Parliament, "Roundheads") vs. Royalists (Cavaliers); England was torn apart; King was executed in 1649.
al to Charles I. Their opponents were the Roundheads, loyal to Parliament and Oliver Cromwell.
supported Parliament (short hair), located in southeast
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
Leviathon Absolute monarch advocate no divine right
a republic under Cromwell before he dissolves parliament and becomes a dictator in the "protectorate"
Oliver Cromwell (1559-1658)
military leader of the roundheads who later rules Autocratically as "lord Protector" ; puritan rule
New Model Army
The disciplined fighting force of Protestants led by Oliver Cromwell in the English civil war.
Levellers and diggers
more equal society; and denied parl authority
Navigation Act (1651)
goods could be imported into territories of the English Commonwealth only by English ships, or by ships of the country originally producing the goods being carried; intended to cripple the freight trade, that Dutch commerce depended. Dutch ships would only be able to import the produce of Holland (primarily butter and cheese) into England and her colonies. led to 1st anglo/dutch war
Restored the English monarchy to Charles II, both Houses of Parliament were restored, established Anglican church, courts of law and local government.
Charles II (1660 1685)
Restoration monarch secretly pro catholic
Test Act (1673)
set by Parl to prevent Catholics from holding office
Treaty of Dover
Secret agreement between Charles 2 eng and Louis 14 - stay out of dutch wars and make Eng more Catholic- for $
successor to his brother Charles II, appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army, universities, and local government; granting religious freedom to all and overthrown by son in law William
Warming Pan theory
catalyst for glorious Revolution -theory that a baby boy was smuggled in and would begin a Catholic Dynasty
William and Mary
New rulers of England ; William dutch
Kick out James2 no bloodshed
Bill of Rights (1689)
states rights of citizens and becomes part of eng constitution
John Locke (1632-1704)
phiosopher ; justified the Glorious Revolution -life , liberty and property
Act of Settlement
(June 12, 1701) Act of Parliament regulated the succession to the English throne. It decreed that if King William III or Princess (later Queen) Anne died without children, the crown was to pass to James I's granddaughter Sophie of Hanover (1630 - 1714) and her Protestant heirs (excludes James II Catholic children).
Act of Union
England and Scotland joined as United Kingdom of Great Britain. Brought economic advantages.
George I from Germany
political system where heads of governmental administrative departments serve as a group to advise the head of state (Prime Minister). All these ministers are drawn from the majority party in the legislature (in Britain the House of Commons) and are responsible to it.
head of government in England the first Robert Walpole
Bank of Amsterdam
1609, Amsterdam; deposit and transfer institution (modern bank), a dutch joint-stocks bank
Dutch East India Company
Government-chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies.
Joint Stock Company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
Marie De medici
headed govt. for child-king Louis XIII, feudal nobles/princes had control of govt., but appointed Cardinal Richelieu to the council of ministers
This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy, Built royal power by not relying on nobles and used middle class officers
French king who succeeded Henry IV when he was nine years old; his reign was dominated by the influence by his mother and regent Marie de Medici, Cardinal Richelieu, and wealthy nobles.
Edict of Nantes
published by King Henry VI (former Henry of Navarre) in 1598. It granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience public worship in 150 fortified towns in France. The reign of Henry VI and the Edict of Nantes prepared the way for French absolutism ;"... where Hugonots make a majority they have special political, religious, and military rights. MADE IT A STATE WITHIN A STATE Very unpopular in France among Catholics. Revoked by Louis XIV in 1685, leading to a massive emigration of French Huguenots.
became dominant power in the government. Continued the centralizing powers of Richelieu, but in 1648 his unpopular attempts to increase royal revenues and expand the state bureaucracy resulted in a widesread rebellion known as the Fronde.
Parlement of Paris
most powerful court that competed with the monarchy for political power, controlled by french nobles, 1648, led other parlements in the Fronde in insisting right to pronounce certain edicts unconstitutional
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.