Sir William Berkeley
the royal governor of Virginia. Adopted policies that favored large planters and neglected the needs of recent settlers in the 'backcountry.' His shortcomings led to Bacon's Rebellion
In the 1640s, during the English Vicil War, the Cavaliers were
supporters of the monarchy and Charles I
In King Philip's War, Indians made effective use of the relatively new weapon
guns. This was the most prolonged and deadly encounter between whites and Indians in the seventeenth century mostly because the Indians had the weapons to adequately defend themselves.
Over time in the seventeenth century, and increasing number of New Englsnd Puritans came to view Indian society
In the beginning okay, had a truce of sorts because the Puritans depended on them to survive, but then there was a smallpox epidemic which wiped most of the Indian population out. At first viewed them with condescending admiration, but switched to vieweing them as savages and a constant threat to the godly community.
In 1638, Anne Hutchinson was deported from the Massachusetts colony because she
created trouble by claiming that all ministers in Massachusetts besides John Cotton and her brother-in-law were not among the elect and didnt deserve to hold office and excersize authority over the congregation.
The Puritan founders in Massachusetts who described their colony as a "shining city upon a hill"
John Winthrop told his men while still on the ship that American would be watched as the city upon a hill, and so that is what Boston became known as
In 1620, the Puritan Pilgrims who came to North America
came because of serious tensions in England between King James I and Parliament because of his continued claim to the divine right of kings and his repressive policies towards the Puritans.
One reason Roger Williams was deported from the Massachusetts colony was he
believed the land belonged to the Indians, and was an abolitionist. He also promoted religious freedom and separation of Church and state. He questioned the colonists right to take land from the Indians publicly about the King
The proprietors who founded the Carolina colony
Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon; George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle; William Craven, 1st Earl of Craven; John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton; Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury; Sir George Carteret; Sir William Berkeley (brother of John); and Sir John Colleton. Of the eight, the one who demonstrated the most active interest in Carolina was Lord Shaftesbury. Shaftesbury, with the assistance of his secretary, the philosopher John Locke, drafted the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina, a plan for government of the colony heavily influenced by the ideas of the English political scientist, James Harrington. Some of the other Lords Proprietors also had interests in other colonies: for instance, John Berkeley and George Carteret held stakes in the Province of New Jersey, and William Berkeley had an interest in Virginia.
In the seventeenth century, white women in colonial Chesapeake
Women were married off quickly as there were so few of them (by age 20 or 21, sometimes 3 to 4 years younger), still viewed as just there for child bearing. There was a very high mortality rate, so there was a traditional male centered family structure of course, but families were constantly shifting as the women and children so often died. Women could anticipate a life filled with child bearing basically.
The term middle passage refers to the movement of enslaved Africans
The Middle Passage was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of people from Africa were shipped to the New World, as part of the Atlantic slave trade (second leg). Ships departed Europe for African markets with manufactured goods, which were traded for purchased or kidnapped Africans, who were transported across the Atlantic as slaves; the slaves were then sold or traded for raw materials, which would be transported back to Europe to complete the voyage. Voyages on the Middle Passage were a large financial undertaking, and they were generally organized by companies or groups of investors rather than individuals.
Compared to King James I, King Charles I's treatment of Puritans
James I was very against Puritans. That was the whole reason he published the King James Bible, to combat them. Charles I was on the Puritan's side. He allowed them a large role in government and supported them.
In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon, a Virginia planter, led a group of 300 settlers in a war against the local Native Americans. When Virginia's royal governor questioned Bacon's actions, Bacon and his men looted and burned Jamestown. Bacon's Rebellion manifested the increasing hostility between the poor and wealthy in the Chesapeake region. Ended when he abruptly died.
The New York colony
New Netherlands came under control of the English in 1664. It was an important imperial outpost because it traded with Caribbean and Europe. It was then named New York after Duke of York. There was a significant conflict with the Dutch in order to get it.
In colonial New England Puritan communities, women
Higher marrying age than other places (23), but she was completely subservient to her husband. They believed that the original sins of Eve made women weak, so they were just there to serve their husbands. However, they were considered spiritually equal.
Commerce in colonial America relied in large part on
Ignoring the navigational laws and establishing the triangular trade, an elaborate coastal trade between the West Indies, mainland colonies, Caribbean markets, England, continental Europe, and the west coast of Africa. Mostly England, continental Europe, and Africa in the triangular trade.
The most common form of resistance by enslaved Africans to their condition was
subtle defiance or evasion of their masters and the development of their own language so they could communicate without their masters understanding.
During the 18th century, rising consumerism inthe American colonies was encouraged by
As colonists became more settled and established the growing prosperity and commercialism created both new appetites and new opportunities. The increase was partly a result of the increasing division of American societies by class.
In the outbreaks of witchcraft hysteria that marked New england colonial life, those accused were most commonly
Old women. Also just women and general, and rarely men. But the overwhelming majority was poor, old women
There exist universal, enduring principles, that are be revealed through reason and logic. (can figure out how to design a system of government by reason and logic), philosophy that emphasized the innate goodness of human beings; believed social problems were the product of people's environments, not the way individual people were made up; believed if we improved our environments, social problems could potentially disappear, universe organized logically, encouraged people to start asking questions and focused on the individual.
John Peter Zenger 1735 trial
The trial of JOHN PETER ZENGER, a New York printer, was an important step toward this most precious freedom for American colonists. John Peter Zenger was a German immigrant who printed a publication called The NEW YORK WEEKLY JOURNAL. This publication harshly pointed out the actions of the corrupt royal governor, WILLIAM S. COSBY. It accused the government of rigging elections and allowing the French enemy to explore New York harbor. It accused the governor of an assortment of crimes and basically labeled him an idiot. Although Zenger merely printed the articles, he was hauled into jail. The authors were anonymous, and Zenger would not name them. In 1733, Zenger was accused of LIBEL, a legal term whose meaning is quite different for us today than it was for him. In his day it was libel when you published information that was opposed to the government. Truth or falsity were irrelevant. He never denied printing the pieces. The judge therefore felt that the verdict was never in question. Verdict = not guilty.
17th century Chesapeake Tabacco economy
Jamestown planter John Rolfe began growing tabacco in
Virginia in 1612 and discovered how easy to cultivate and how profitable it was. The colony slowly began to depend on tabacco, selling it to the Indians and Europeans alike. This also spurred the slave trade as they needed laborers
Triangular Trade-North America responsible for
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa.
1760s Revolutionary crisis in cities
They were the center of societies. They had the printers and newspapers, and so this was where ideas spread fastest and there was the most man power to back up a leader and a revolt
A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.
Widely circulated publications in colonial America after the Bible
The large number of colonists who could read created a market for the first widely circulated publications in America other than the Bible. By 1700, there were dozens, perhaps hundreds, of almanacs circulating
throughout the colonies and even in the sparsely settled lands to the west. Most families had at least one. Almanacs provided medical advice, navigational and agricultural information, practical wisdom, humor, and
predictions about the future—most famously, predictions about weather patterns for the coming year, which many farmers used as the basis of decisions about crops even though the predictions were notoriously unreliable.
The most famous almanac in eighteenth-century
America was Poor Richard's Almanac, published by
Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia.
Religious toleration in the colonies
All the colonies tolerant to a certain extent, but MA was the least tolerant (excluded non Christians).
slave life in colonies
On smaller farms not always a rigid separation between whites and blacks, but by the mid 18th century over 3/4 of all blacks lived on plantations of at least 10 slaves. In these larger plantations they would develop their own society and culture. Treated as property. No stable family units so fake family. Language of their own.
Two largest port cities in colonial North America by 1770s were
Boston and New York, followed by Philedalphia
came into the picture in 1738 during the Great Awakening, which was a religious revival that spread through all of the colonies. He was a great preacher who had recently been an alehouse attendant. Everyone in the colonies loved to hear him preach of love and forgiveness because he had a different style of preaching. This led to new missionary work in the Americas in converting Indians and Africans to Christianity, as well as lessening the importance of the old clergy.
The Great Awakening
Fervent religious revival movement in the 1720s through the 40s that was spread throughout the colonies by ministers like New England Congregationalist Jonathan Edwards and English revivalist George Whitefield. Was a period of heightened religious activity in the British North American colonies in the 1730s and 1740s.
First American college
Harvard, founded in 1636 by the General Court legislature of Massachusetts as a training ground for ministers
Roman Catholics in colonies
Maryland was established as the retreat for Englsih Catholics, as it was very religiously tolerant. Many felt oppressed by the Anglican establishment and so went to the New World to live or spread their religion