child development exam

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developmental task

challenge that must be met or skill developed at a particular stage of life

heredity

the passing on of certain characteristics from earlier generations

professional

a worker who has at least a degree from a four-year college or technical school in a particular field

paraprofessional

a worker with education beyond high school that trains him or her for a certain field

entry-level

a position for beginners in a field, one which requires limited education and training

self-esteem

how you value yourself

self-concept

how you see yourself

sexuality

a person's view of himself or herself as a male or female

abstinence

avoiding sexual activity

open adoption

a type of adoption in which the birth parents are told about the adoptive parents and may even get to meet them

closed adoption

a type of adoption in which the birth parents do not kno the names of the adoptive parents

miscarriage

the unexpected death of a developing baby before 20 weeks of pregnancy

STDs

an illness spread from one person to another by sexual contact

adoption

a legal process by which children enter a family they were not born into

blended family

a family group that is formed when a single parents marries another person, who may or may not be a parent as well

extended family

a family group that includes relatives other than a parent and child who lives with them

nuclear family

a family group that includes a mother and father and at least one child

single-parent family

a family group that includes one parent and at least one child

guardian

adult who takes all financial and legal responsibility for raising a child when the childs parents die

authoritarian style

a parenting style based on the idea that children should obey their parents without question

democratic style

a parenting style in which parents allow children some imput into rules and limits put on their behavior

permissive style

a parenting style in which parents give children a wide range of freedom, with children being able to set their own rules

nurturing

giving a child opportunities for encouragement and enrichment and showing love, support, and concern for the child

accreditation

a formal process in which the NAEYC reviews a child care facility's staff, programs, and enviroment to see if they meet the associations strict standards

nanny

trained worker hired by a family to provide live-in child care

parent cooperative

child care situation in which part of the care is provided by the parents of children in the program

play group

child care arrangements in which parents take turns caring for each others children in their own homes

preschool

a facility that provides education programs for children aged three to five

fetal alcohol syndrome

a condition that includes physical and mental problems that result from a mothers drinking alcohol while shes pregnant

prenatal period

period before pregnancy

postpartum period

period after pregnancy

conception

the union of an ovum and sperm, resulting in the beginning of a pregnancy

fixed expense

a cost that cannot be changed

flexible expense

a cost over which people have some control and which can be cut back if necessary

budget

a spending plan used to help people set financial goals and work towards them

cesarean birth

the delivery of a baby by making a surgical incision in the mother's abdomen

apgar scale

a rating system used to evaluate a newborn's physical condition

bonding

forming strong emotional tiesbetween parent and child

premature

babies born before 37 weeks of developments and weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces

grasp reflex

the automatic response of a newborn's hand to close over anything that comes in contact with the palm

rooting reflex

a newborns automatic response, when touched on the lips or cheeks, of turning toward the touch and beginning to suck

startle reflex

a newborn's automatic response to a loud noise or a touch on the stomach, in which the legs are thrown up, fingers spread, and arms are first extended, and then brought back rapidly while the fingers close in a grasping action

colostrum

the first milk produced by a womans breast after child birth

incubator

a special enclosed crib used for premature babies in which the oxygen supply, temperature, and humidity can be closely controlled

jean piaget

first person to study children in a scientific way focusing on how they learned

genes

along with heredity this is one of the reasons there are so many birth effects

microwave

where never to heat formula

headstart programs

helps disadvantaged children become ready for school

breast

the type of milk that doctors recommend babies be given

2

the age the brain has reached its full adult size

uterus

where the baby implants itself

24-30

the amount of weight a pregnant woman should gain

maternity leave

time off workt aht allows a woman to give birth, recover, and begin to care for her new baby

12-20

the amount of sleep a newborn baby needs

obstretricians

doctors who specialize in prenatal and postnatal care of the mother and baby

missed period

first sign of pregnancy

1-2

the amount of pounds a baby should gain in about a month

20

inches long that the average newborn is

identical

always the same sex

fraternal

formed when two eggs are released at the same time and each is fertilized

still birth

if a baby dies after 20 weeks

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