study guide for exam 2 human anatomy & physiology

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integumentary system

together with blood vessels, nerves, sensory organs, the skin & associated structures form this

epidermis, dermis & subcutaneous layer

the 3 layers of the skin

epidermis

Outermost portion of skin, protection from wear and tear, injury, and harmful substances; composed mostly of stratified squamous epithelium, avascular, composed of stratum corneum & stratum basale

stratum basale, or stratum germinativum

the deepest layer of epidermis, closest to the dermis, constantly dividing & producing new epithelial cells, which are pushed upward toward skin surface

stratum corneum

uppermost layer of epidermis or horny layer of the epidermis formed by the migrated, flattened cells of the basal layer.This layer consists of dead keratinized cells that are interwoven and closely packed. These cells are constantly being shed and are completely replaced with new cells from below; found on face, soles of the feet, & palms of the hands

keratin

fibrous protein that helps give the epidermis its protective properties

exfoliation

shedding of dead skin cells

melanin

a dark pigment that colors the skin & protects it from sunlight's harmful rays; it is produced by melanocytes in the deepest layer of the epidermis

skin, hair, middle coat of eyeball, iris of eye & in certain tumors

where is melanin found in the body?

freckles

irregular patches of melanin are called

dermis

The middle layer of the skin, has a framework of elastic connective tissue & well supplied with blood vessels and nerves, location for sebaceous (oil) glands, sweat glands, hair follicles & sensory receptors

dermal papillae

Projections from dermis into epidermis. Increase surface area of the dermis and stratum germinativum. Form ridges in epidermis and form fingerprints and footprints

subcutaneous layer (hypodermis or superficial fascia)

underneath and supporting the dermis, this connects the skin to the underlying muscles, consists of loose connective tissue & large amounts of adipose (fat) tissue, helps to regulate body temperature.

sebaceous (oil) glands

saclike glands, ducts open into hair follicles and secrete sebum to keep hair and skin lubricated and provide protection against both bacteria and drying

sweat (sudoriferous) glands

coiled glands located in the dermis & subcutaneous tissue that vent directly to the skin surface or through hair follicles; release perspiration to cool body by evaporation, eliminate some soluble wastes

eccrine gland

Most widely distributed sweat glands that regulate body temperature by releasing a watery secretion that evaporates from the surface of the skin

sebum

oily secretion, lubricates the skin & hair & prevents drying

vernix caseosa

babies are born with this covering (resembles cream cheese) produced by sebaceous glands "cheesy varnish"

meibomian glands

modified sebaceous glands, are associated with the eye lashes & produce a secretion that lubricates the eyes

apocrine sweat glands

located mainly in the arm pits & groin area, these glands become active at puberty & release their secretions through hair follicles in response to emotional stress & sexual stimulation; body odor develops from the action of bacteria in breaking down these materials

ceruminous (or cerumen) glands

in the ear canal that produce ear wax

ciliary glands

at the edge of eyelids

mammary glands

in the breasts

hair

composed of keratin, develops in the follicle, grows from base of follicle

hair structure

follicle, shaft, root & errector pili muscle

errector pili muscle

attached to most hair follicles is a thin band of involuntary muscle, when a person is frightened, or cold this muscle contracts, raising the hair & forming "goose bumps" on the skin "hair raiser"

palms of hands, soles of feet, lips, nipples & parts of external genitalia

hairless regions

shaft

the part of hair that projects above the skin

root

the portion below the skin

root, cuticle.lunula, nail plate & free edge

the structure of the nail in order, starting with proximal end

integumentary system

What is the name of the system that comprises the skin & all of its associated structures?

epidermis & dermis

Moving from the superficial to the deeper layer, what are the names of the 2 layers of skin?

loose connective tissue & adipose (fat) tissue

What is the composition of the subcutaneous layer?

the sebaceous glands

What is the name of the skin glands that produce an oily secretion (sebum)?

sudoriferous glands

What is the scientific name for the sweat glands?

hair follicle

What is the name of the sheath in which a hair develops?

keratin & sebum

What 2 substances produced in the skin help to prevent dehydration?

dilation (widening) & constriction (narrowing) of blood vessels & evaporation of perspiration from the body surface

What 2 mechanisms involving the skin are used to regulate temperature?

functions of the integumentary system

protection against infection, protection against dehydration (drying), regulation of body temperature & collection of sensory information

melanin

this is the skin's main pigment, helps to protect against sunlight's damaging UV radiation

albinism

is a hereditary disorder that impairs melanin production, resulting in lack of pigment in skin, hair & eyes

hemoglobin

is the pigment that carries oxygen in red blood cells, gives blood its color & is visible through vessels in the dermis

pallor

is paleness of the skin, often caused by reduced blood flow or reduction in hemoglobin, as occurs in cases of anemia

flushing

is diffuse redness caused by increased blood flow to the skin

cyanosis

the skin may take on a bluish discoloration when there is not enough oxygen in circulating blood

carotenemia

the presence of carotene, usually in excess amounts, in the blood; yellowish red skin discoloration caused by excessive intake of carrots & other orange vegetables

jaundice

yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and whites of the eyes, caused by excessive levels of bilirubin in the blood (hepatitis, immaturity of liver in newborn)

lesion

is any wound or local damage to tissue

rash

a surface lesion

eruption

a raised lesion

erythema

redness of the skin

macule, papule, vesicle & pustule

the 4 surface lesions

macule

flat (neither raised nor depressed) spot = freckle

papule

small, elevated lump in the skin, as in some stages of chicken pox or 2nd stage of syphilis; pimple

vesicle (bulla)

A blister or small fluid filled sac as seen in some stages of chickenpox or shingles eruption

pustule

a blister (vesicle) filled with pus

excoriation, laceration, ulcer & fissure

the 4 deeper lesions of skin

excoriation

a scratch into the skin

laceration

irregular wound caused by tearing of the skin

ulcer

a sore associated with disintegration & death of tissue (it goes all the way through skin)

fissure

a crack in the skin

superficial, superficial partial thickness, deep partial thickness & full thickness

what are the 4 different ways that depths of tissue destruction are categorized?

superficial- 1st degree burn

involves the epidermis only, skin is red & dry; minimal pain

deep partial thickness- 2nd degree burn

involves the epidermis & dermis, the tissue may be blistered with weeping surface or dry because of sweat gland damage. These burns may be less painful because of nerve damage

full thickness- 3rd degree burn

involves the full skin & sometimes subcutaneous tissue & underlying tissues as well, tissue is broken, dry, pale or charred. These injuries may require skin grafting & loss of digits or limbs

the rule of nines

this method is used to estimate percentages of body surface area (BSA) in treatment of burns

depth of the burn & extent of body surface involved

What 2 factors are used to assess the severity of burns?

keratin

cells of the stratum corneum contain large amounts of a protein called

apocrine sweat glands

sweat glands located in the axillae & groin

arrector pili

the name of the muscle that raises the hair (goose bumps) is called

melanin

a dark-colored pigment that protects the skin from ultraviolet light is called

scar

an indication of damage, a mark on the skin that is left after a cut or other wound has healed

cicatrix

a medical term that means "scar"

protection against infection, protection against dehydration, temperature regulation, and sensation.

what are the 4 most important functions of the skin?

melanin, hemoglobin & carotene

What are some pigments that impart color to the skin?

nutrition, blood supply, infection & age

4 factors that affect healing of skin

epithelial & connective tissue

What 2 categories of tissues repair themselves most easily?

dermatosis

a general term referring to any skin disease

dermatitis

inflammation of the skin

atopic dermatitis or eczema

intense itching & skin inflammation; is a chronic, inflammatory skin disorder with a genetic predisposition of asthma and hay fever, or allergies to irritants

psoriasis

a chronic, recurrent skin disease marked by silvery scales covering red patches, papules, and/or plaques on the skin that result from overproduction and thickening of skin cells; common sites of involvement are the elbows, knees, genitals, arms, legs, scalp, and nails

skin cancer

the most common form of cancer in the United States

melanoma

is a malignant tumor of melanocytes, originates in a mole or birthmark anywhere on the body

open comedones

blackheads

closed comedones

whiteheads

acne vulgaris

skin condition that occurs most frequently during the teenage years at varying levels of severity. It is caused by obstruction of a hair follicle due to overgrowth of sebum and keratin debris, an overproduction of oil due to enlarged oil glands, and bacteria known as pimples- usually found on face, chest, and back

impetigo

highly contagious skin infection caused by streptococci or staphylococci organisms; marked by pustules that rupture and become crusted--most often occurs around the mouth and nostrils; honey-crusted lesions

herpes simplex virus

causes the formation of watery vesicles (cold sores & fever blisters) on skin & mucous membranes; Two Types.-Type 1 causes lesions around the nose & mouth & Type 2 is responsible for genital infections, often reoccuring

shingles

disease caused by the same organism that causes chickenpox in children; infection follows nerve pathways, producing small, vesicular skin lesions along the course of nerve

wart

a skin lesion caused by a virus of the human papillomavirus group; usually a raised bump

verruca

another name for wart, an epidermal tumor caused by human papilloma virus (genital warts)

tinea corporis

a fungal infection of the skin, resembles a worm shape: ringworm of the body

tinea pedis

athelete's foot

tinea capitus

fungal scalp infection

scabies

contagious skin disease caused by an itch mite burrowing under the skin

alopecia

baldness, is an expression of heredity & aging; influenced by male sex hormones

allergy

A hypersensitivity to a substance that does not normally cause a reaction.

urticaria

hives (wheals), is an allergic reaction characterized by temporary appearance of elevated red patches

autoimmune disorder

reaction to one's own tissue

pemphigus, lupus erythematosus & scleroderma

What are the 3 autoimmune disorders that involve the skin?

pemphigus

An autoimmune disorder in which the immune system produces antibodies against specific proteins in the skin and mucous membrane. These antibodies produce a reaction that leads to a separation of skin cells; is fatal unless treated by methods to suppress the immune system

lupus erythematosus

a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of connective tissue (skin or joints), "butterfly rash" across the nose & cheeks

scleroderma

a disease that involves overproduction of collagen with thickening & tightening of the skin; hardening of the skin

pressure ulcers

skin lesions that appear where the body rests on skin that covers bony projections

melanoma

What is the name for a cancer of the skin's pigment producing cells?

the skeletal system

is made up of 206 bones, joints and supporting connective tissue; divided into 2 parts= axial & appendicular

ribs & skull (cranium)

where are flat bones found?

carpals of wrist, tarsals of ankle

where are short bones found?

arms & legs

where are long bones found?

diaphysis

the narrow shaft of a long bone

medullary cavity

the central portion -marrow cavity; the open area within the center of diaphysis of long bone

red marrow

this marrow is found at the ends of long bones & at the center of others, manufactures blood cells

yellow marrow

this found chiefly in the central cavities of long bones; composed of mostly fat

periosteum

The thick fibrous membrane covering the entire surface of a bone except its articular cartilage. It contains osteoblasts (bone-forming cells), osteoclasts (bone destroying cells), nerve fibers, and blood & lymphatic vessels. Ligaments & tendons attach to this

endosteum

a thinner membrane that lines the bone's marrow cavity, contains cells that aid in the growth & repair of bone tissue

osseous tissues

the specialized tissue forming the bones.

compact bone & spongy bone

2 types of bone tissue

compact bone

is hard & dense; makes up the main shaft of a long bone & outer layer of other bones; located in rings of bone tissue called haversian canal (contains nerves & blood vessels)

the structure of a long bone

has a long, narrow shaft, the diaphysis & 2 irregular ends, the epiphyses, the medullary cavity has yellow bone marrow

spongy bone (cancellous)

it is made of a meshwork of small, bony plates filled with red marrow; it is found at the epiphyseal ends of long bones & center of other bones

ossification

the conversion of cartilage to bone

osteoblasts

bone-building cells; immature cells, manufacture matrix which is material located between cells- matures into osteocytes

matrix

material located between the cells

collagen

a fibrous protein that gives the tissue strength & resilience

epiphyseal plate

around the time of birth, secondary bone- forming centers develop across the ends of the long bones

osteoclasts

developed from WBC, responsible for resorption or breakdown of bone tissue; necessary for bone remolding & repairs

osteocytes

mature bone cells, consists of collagen, maintain & repair the existing bone matrix

long bone formation

cartilage begins to turn into bone, epiphyseal plates develop across bone ends, bones continue to lengthen, bones stop lengthening, bone resorption & formation continues

head, process, condyle, crest & spine

What are the 5 different bone markings that are projections?

head

a rounded, knoblike end separated from the rest of the bone by a slender region, the neck

process

a large projection of a bone, such as the superior process of the ulna in the forearm that creates the elbow

condyle

a large, rounded articular process

crest

a distinct border or narrow ridge, often rough, such as over the top of the hip bone

spine

a sharp projection from the surface of a bone, such as a spine of the scapula (shoulder blade)

foramen, sinus, fossa & meatus

What are the 4 different bone markings that are depressions or holes?

foramen

a hole that allows a vessel or nerve to pass through or between bones

sinus

a cavity or hollow space, most commonly, an air-filled chamber found in some skull bones. These sinuses are named for the bones in which they are located

fossa

a depression on a bone surface

meatus

a short channel or passageway, usually the external opening of a canal. An example is the channel in the skull's temporal bone that leads to the inner ear

epiphyseal plates

what are the centers for secondary growth of long bone called?

help to form joints, are points for muscle attachments & allow passage of nerves and blood vessels

What are some functions of bone markings?

axial skeleton & appendicular skeleton

How are the bones of skeleton divided?

axial skeleton (body's "axis")

consists of 80 bones- bony framework of the head & trunk

appendicular skeleton (body's "appendages")

consists of 126 bones & forms the framework for the extremities (limbs), shoulders & hips

frontal bone

single bone forming forehead, roof of eye socket, contains frontal sinuses

frontal sinuses

located in the frontal bone just above the eyebrows; an infection here can cause severe pain in this area,communicate with the nasal cavities,

paranasal sinuses

Cavities within cranial and facial bones near the nasal cavity

parietal bones

paired bones forming most of the top & sides of cranium

temporal bones

paired bones forming part of side & base of skull; each bone has a bony prominence behind the ears that is called a mastoid process; each mastoid process contains mastoid sinus

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