A & P I Chapter 3

36 terms by htyrpak 

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smooth ER

In certain kinds of muscle cells, calcium ions are stored in the ________.

enzymes involved in cell metabolism

Caveolae are closely associated with all of the following except . . .
enzymes involved in cell metabolism
enzymes involved in cell regulation
lipid rafts
receptors for hormones

The nucleotide sequence in a tRNA anticodon is an exact copy of the DNA triplet that coded for it except that uracil is substituted for thymine.

Which statement is the most correct regarding transcription/translation?
The nucleotide sequence in a tRNA anticodon is an exact copy of the DNA triplet that coded for it.
The nucleotide sequence in a tRNA anticodon is an exact copy of the DNA triplet that coded for it except that uracil is substituted for thymine.
The nucleotide sequence in a mRNA codon is an exact copy of the DNA triplet that coded for it except that uracil is substituted for thymine.
The nucleotide sequence in a mRNA codon is an exact copy of the DNA triplet that coded for it.

proteins

Phosphates are abundant in the intracellular fluid. What is the other major intracellular anion?

Na+ is pumped out of the cell, creating a lower Na+ concentration inside the cell.

The Na+-K+ ATPase pump is important for secondary active transport of other solutes. How does this pump work to bring in other solutes?

Water will move to the right side of the beaker because the right side is hypertonic compared to the left side.

If more solute particles are added to the right side of a beaker with a selectively permeable membrane (thus the particles cannot move to the left side), which way will the water in the beaker move, and why will it move in that direction?

repressor genes

Which of the following does not serve as a signal for cell division?
loss of contact inhibition
repressor genes
shrinking surface-to-volume ratio
joining of cyclins and Cdks

In primary active transport, the transport protein gets phosphorylated; in secondary active transport, the transport protein is not phosphorylated.

What is the difference between primary and secondary active transport?

Glucose is a hydrophilic molecule.

Why are protein channels and carriers required for the movement of glucose into or out of the cell?

G1

centrioles begin to replicate in G1, S, or G2?

G1

cellular growth and biosynthesis of organelles and proteins for various functions occurs in G1, S, or G2?

S

Chromosome replication occurs in G1, S, or G2?

S

Centrosome replication occurs in G1, S, or G2?

G2

Growth and biosynthesis of products to be used in mitosis occurs in G1, S, or G2?

Cytokinesis usually begins in anaphase.

Which is true regarding cytokinesis?
Cytokinesis usually begins in anaphase.
Cytokinesis always begins and ends in telophase.
The pinching in of the cytoplasm and cleavage furrow begins and ends after telophase is totally finished.
The cytokinesis cleavage furrow is made by the mitosis spindle.

junctions among epithelial cells lining the digestive tract

Which of the following describes tight junctions?
cell junctions in areas that are subjected to great mechanical stress, such as the skin and heart muscles
junctions where cells are held together by cadherins
junctions within electrically excitable tissues, such as the heart and smooth muscle
junctions among epithelial cells lining the digestive tract

DNA polymerase

what builds new strands of DNA?

The leading strand is built continuously, and the lagging strand is built in pieces.

Which statement best describes strand characteristics as it relates to DNA replication?
The leading and lagging strands are both built continuously.
The lagging strand is built continuously, and the leading strand is built in pieces.
The leading and lagging strands are both built in fragments.
The leading strand is built continuously, and the lagging strand is built in pieces.

DNA ligase

Which protein joins together the Okazaki fragments of DNA in the lagging strand?

DNA ligase adds nucleotides to the lagging strand

Which statement about DNA replication is FALSE?
The two strands of original or parental DNA are separated during DNA replication.
The lagging strand is made of a series of fragments that must be joined together to make a continuous strand.
DNA polymerase III builds a new strand by adding DNA nucleotides one at a time.
DNA ligase adds nucleotides to the lagging strand.
Because the two strands of original or parental DNA run in opposite directions, the new strands must be made in different ways.

tRNA

The RNA responsible for bringing the amino acids to the ribosome for protein formation is ________.

receptor-mediated endocytosis

What process allows cells to concentrate material that is present only in very small amounts in the extracellular fluid?

0.45% saline

Which of the following solutions may be infused intravenously to help rehydrate a severely dehydrated patient (i.e., a patient suffering from cellular dehydration)?
0.45% saline
5% saline
5% glucose
0.9% NaCl

peroxisome

What organelle possesses oxidase enzymes that function in neutralizing harmful free radicals?

DNA

Which nucleic acid molecules are involved in transcription but not translation in the synthesis of a particular polypeptide?

signal transduction

Proteins in the cell membrane that bind hormones and relay messages into the interior of the cell perform a function known as ___________ ____________.

glycocalyx

Definite changes in the __________ of the cell membrane can be seen in a cell that is becoming cancerous.

desmosomes

____________ are considered anchoring junctions.

hypertonic

Crenation takes place when a cell is placed in a __________ solution.

the lack of the enzymes needed to breakdown a glycolipid abundant in nerve cell membranes

The underlying cause of Tay-Sachs disease is __________.

riboswitches

what type of RNA contains regions that act as a switch to turn protein synthesis on and off for the protein it codes for?

plasma membrane

The outer boundary of a human cell is the ___________.

endocytosis

Pinocytosis is a type of___________.

receptor-mediated endocytosis

Cells of the body mainly use _______ for the selective endocytosis of most macromolecules.

S

DNA is replicated during the ________ phase of the cell cycle.

template to make RNA

During transcription DNA is used as a __________.

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