Art 258 Test 1

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68 terms · Prehistoric Art-Minoan

Woman holding a bison horn (France, ca. 25,000-20,000 BCE)

a. early art is concerned with survival, horn indicates possible religion
b. dashes on horn may be symbolism for calendar
c. relief sculpture

Hall of the Bulls (ca. 15,000-13,000 BCE)

a. not in a 'lived in' area, deep underground difficult to get to
b. paintings above human reach, again symbolism at a hunt (?)
c. made with ground minerals

Catal Hoyuk (restored view) (ca. 6000- 5900 BCE)

a. largest Neolithic city
b. made of mud brick
c. had control of obsidian trade
d. filled with shrines of bulls

megalithic

a. refers to the use of large stones as an artistic medium
b.generally used to describe art carved onto megaliths (large stones) in prehistoric Europe

relief

a sculpture where to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background

post and lintel

is a simple construction method using a lintel, header, or architrave as the horizontal member over a building void supported at its ends by two vertical columns, pillars, or posts.

Ziggurat (Ur, ca. 2100 BCE)

a. in the center of a major city
b. ziggurat relates to the word mountaintop = trying to replicate a mountaintop
c. built mostly with sun dried bricks but used fired bricks to make protective outer layer
b. built high to allow rulers/priests to get in touch with gods

Statues of Gudea (ca. 2100 BCE)

a. Gudea= very powerful ruler of at least 3 cities
b. stone was transported 100s of miles from the found location (indication of power/wealth)
c. pictured writing a blue print which the gods had spoken to him

Fragment, Victory Stele of Eannatum (Stele of the Vultures)

a. a stealy= carved upright stone sculpture
b. the stone was to show Eannatum's victory over invaders and was placed at the border to dismay further attacks

Stele with law code of Hammurabi (ca.1780 BCE)

a. combined the law code of various regions into 1, pictured as coming from divine inspiration
b. in this code there are 3 different punishments for every crime depending on class
c. at top the sun god is pictured with a crown made of bulls horns

cuneiform

one of the earliest known forms of written expression. Emerging in Sumer around the 30th century BC, this style of writing began as a system of pictographs

register

seen in egyptian art, these separate a visual story on a wall or statue, allows the artist to show multiple scenes in 1 artwork.

composite view

showing each form at its most characteristic view. seen in Egyptian/prehistoric art.

hierarchic scale

sed in ancient art where important figures (kings) are pictured larger than unimportant characters (slaves)

Palette of King Narmer (Hierakonpolis, ca. 3000- 2920 BCE)

a. palette= tool to grind eye paint
b. thought to be a gift to the goddess Hathor
c. Narmer is identified with one of the earliest records of hieroglyphics
d. shows in its registers the first unification of egypt and the claim of egyptian kings to be divine

Seated Scribe (Saqqara, ca. 2450-2350)

a. made of limestone, painted and pictured realistically
b. pictured as writing b/c it was a symbol of status they wanted to carry with them to afterlife

Reliefs in the mastaba of Ti

a. Ti watching a hippopodamus hunt, Goats treading seed, and cattle fording a canal
b. visible evidence that culture had transformed from literally suppling dead with food/water/activities to painting them on walls in 'magical art' so these activities could be continued in afterlife

Upper Egypt

The area of Egypt made up of the river shores

Lower Egypt

The area of Egypt which is the rich alluvial fan

hieroglyphs

the egyptian written language made up of pictures and symbols

Hathor

cow goddess with a sun disk, whom welcomes dead into afterlife, mother figure, horus's wife

Divine Kingship

kings as children of gods, leads to kings always being pictured as perfect forms

Pyramid of Khufu

a. oldest and largest of the pyramids

Pyramid of Khafre

b. second-oldest and second largest of the pyramids

Pyramid of Menkaure

c. newest and smallest of the pyramids

Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut (Deir el-Bahri, ca. 1473-1458)

a. woman king of egypt, transformed in her statues from originally female character to male king
b. uses male appearance to give herself appropriate image of power- this temple filled with her statue
c. built by Hatshepsut as show of power
d. stepson and 'co-ruler' ordered it desecrated after her death

Temple of Amen-Ra (Karnak, begun 15th c.)

a. built as a setting for processions where Amen-Ra would travel out to visit other gods
b. hypostyle, clerestory hall which mimics papyrus and the gods legendary original home

Akhenaton (Karnak, ca. 1353-1335)

a. statue of a very strange shaped king, more homozygous than hetero
b. was a monotheist and tried to start religious revolution in egypt
c. worshiped Aten as single Sun god

Akhenaton, Nefertiti and three daughters (Amarna, ca. 1353-35)

a. image of family all worshiping Aten with strange body types
b. done in first example of shrunken relief
c. first time you can tell between left and right feet
d. makes this image to show breaking away from tradition

Coffin and Death Mask of Tutankhamen (ca. 1323)

a. this coffin has about 500lbs of gold
inlaid stone: turquoise, lap as lazardie, carnelian

Throne of Tutankhamen

a. on the throne pictured like acknatan, not the formal picture royalty had been before

Painted chest from tomb of Tutankhamen (ca. 1333-23)

...

Last Judgment of Hu-Nefer (ca. 1290-1280 )

a. a guidebook for the dead to reach their last judgement
b. pages about 18 inch high
c. the book contained prayers and instruction on how to reach the afterlife

Valley of the Kings

Area of the pyramids (where the Kings are buried)

hypostyle hall

this type of architecture refers to a hall of many columns

clerestory

a. are any high windows above eye level
b. used in the temple of Amen-Ra

Aten

The single 'sun god' religion which Akhenaton tried to found in egypt

sunken relief

An art technique in Ancient egypt used durning Akhenatons reign which required less time so the art could be produced faster and bring the message of Aten to more people quickly. Carving into stone to produce images rather than around it.

ankh

a. 'key of life'
b. ancient egyptian hieroglyphic character

Osiris

a. King of the Underworld in egyptian legend, pictured as a green mummy (green is color of rebirth)

Palace at Knossos (Crete, ca. 1700-1400 BCE)

a. reconstructed elaborate floor plan with open courtyards where religious ceremony took place
b. filled with bulls/bull imagery
c. maze-like layout possibly responsible for the legend of the minotaur in the labyrinth the greeks invented

Bull-leaping fresco (ca. 1450-1400 )

a. skin color as a way of distinguishing gender. females=white, males=red
b. a picture of some kind of religious ritual
c. first fresco on record

Snake Goddess (ca. 1600)

a. goddess or high priestess, heavily associated with forces of nature
b. ceramic with ground quartz
c. snakes are positive in ancient culture as they protect farmers grain from pests

Landscape with swallows (Thera, ca. 1650)

(Spring fresco)
a. first landscape on record
b. bright colors, strangely painted
c. in a modest home, not royal/extreme wealth

Octopus Jar (ca. 1500)

a. very finely crafted as Minoans used wheel to throw ceramics
b. accurate representation of nature/ octopus, again shows high value Minoan people placed on nature

King Minos

A figure in greek legend, there is no indication this person existed as all of Minoan art centers around nature

the Minotaur in the labyrinth

this legend was possibly spawned by the maze like structure of the Palace at Knossos and the religious rites that took place there

fresco

Painting directly onto wet plaster on a wall so that the paint has longevity and bonds with the wall

Amen-Ra

a. self created god whom was king of all gods
b. kings of egypt where thought to be his sons

Citadel of Tiryns,

a. placed up on a hill in a defensible location, with walls up to 20 ft thick
b. society organized around warfare

a. placed up on a hill in a defensible location, with walls up to 20 ft thick
b. society organized around warfare

a. placed up on a hill in a defensible location, with walls up to 20 ft thick
b. society organized around warfare

a. placed up on a hill in a defensible location, with walls up to 20 ft thick
b. society organized around warfare

a. placed up on a hill in a defensible location, with walls up to 20 ft thick
b. society organized around warfare

a. placed up on a hill in a defensible location, with walls up to 20 ft thick
b. society organized around warfare

a. 9in long bronze blade with hunt scene, buried with a warrior
b. most likely just had ceremonial uses, unlikely was used in battle

a. 9in long bronze blade with hunt scene, buried with a warrior
b. most likely just had ceremonial uses, unlikely was used in battle

a. 9in long bronze blade with hunt scene, buried with a warrior
b. most likely just had ceremonial uses, unlikely was used in battle

Homer

ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)

The Iliad and the Odyssey

the epic poems by Homer about the "dark age" heroes of Greece who fought at Troy. the poems were written down in the eihth century B.C.E. after centuries of being sung by bards.

Athena Parthenos

statue of Athena that was destroyed before the 19th century
made of ivory
wear a lot of clothing believed to be made out of gold, and sewn by aristocratic women
Very strong looking/not feminine

Perikles

Leader in Athens during its Golden Age, patron of the arts encouraging public images of peace, prosperity, and power. Convinced the people to rebuild the Acropolis to honor Athena.
b. bust looks almost godlike, maybe artists where making men better looking than actually where

Panathenaic Festival procession frieze

frieze that depicts athens most important festival, athletics and music contests

Parthenon

the main temple of the goddess Athena, where the friezes are the contest of Athena and Poseidon for athens, and the birth of athena

contrapposto

Human posture in which the shoulders and head are turned one way and the hips and legs another; weight off the body is put on one foot, creating a feeling of tension on one side of the body and relaxation on the other

lost wax method

a bronze-casting method in which a figure is modeled in wax and covered with clay; the whole is fired, melting away the wax and hardening the clay, which then becomes a mold for molten metal

metopes with labors of Herakles

a. the metopes of the Temple of Zeus at olympia depict the founder of the olympic games
b. herakles holds up the sky in place of atlas
c. all figures have a severe demeanor characteristic of the period "severe style"

Chariot Race of Pelops and Oenomaos

a scene pictured on the east pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia where the sculpture told the story of how Pelops cheated his way into winning a race against Oenomaos in order to marry Oenomaos's daughter

East Pediment, Temple of Zeus at Olympia

a. built by Libon of Elis
b. a scene where the gods are watching the chariot race of pelops and oenomaos
c. the seer is the outlier in this sculpture his face is shocked (because he see's the future) and he is also old. A break from the archaic smile and the young perfection which had been sculpted until then

doryphoros (spear bearer) by Polykleitos

a. the artist's view of the perfect statue
b. a seemingly relaxed figure using contrapposto

disco bolos (disk thrower) by Myron

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