The eye

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aque/o

water

blephar/o

eyelid

conjunctiv/o

conjunctiva-to join together

corne/o

cornea

kerat/o

cornea

cycl/o

ciliary body-circle

ir/o

iris (colored circle)

irid/o

iris (colored circle)

lacrim/o

tear

dacry/o

tear

ocul/o

eye

opthalm/o

eye

phac/o

lens (lentil)

phak/o

lens (lentil)

phot/o

light

presby/o

old age

retin/o

retina

scler/o

sclera (hard)

vitre/o

glassy

-opia

condition of vision

anterior chamber

fluid-filled space btwn the cornea and iris

aqueous humor

watery liquid secreted at the ciliary body that fills the ant and posterior chambers of the eye and provides nourishment for the cornea, iris, and lens

canal of Schlemm

duct in the ant. chamber that carries filtered aq. humor to the veins and bloodstream

choroid

vascular layer beneath the sclera that provides nourishment to the outer portion of the retina

ciliary body

ring of muscle behind the peripheral iris that controls the power of the lens

ciliary muscle

smooth muscle portion of the ciliary body, which contracts to assist in near-vision

ciliary process

epithelia tissue folds on the inner surface of the ciliary body that secretes aq. humor

conjunctiva

joining together; mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and outer surface of the eyeball

cornea

transparent, ant. part of the eyeball convering the iris, pupil, and ant. chamber that functions to refract (bend) light to focus visual image

eyelid (palpebra)

moveable protective fold that opens and closes, covering the eye

fovea centralis

pinpoint depression in the center of the macula lutea that is the site of sharpest vision

fundus (base)

interior surface of the eyeball including the retina, optic disk, macula, and posterior pole (curative at the back of the eye)

glands of Zeis

oil glands surrounding the eyelashes

meibomian glands

oil glands located along the rim of the eyelids

iris

colred circle; colred prt of the eye located behind the cornea that contracts and dilates to regulate light passing through the pupil

lacrimal gland

gland located in the upper outer region above the eyeball that secretes the tears

lacrimal ducts

tubes that carry tears to the lacrimal sac

lacrimal sac

structure that collect tears before emptying into the nasalcrimal duct

lens

transparent structure behind the pupil that bends and focuses light rays on the retina

lens capsule

capsule that encloses the lens

macula lutea (macula)

central region of the retina responsible for central vision; yellow pigment provides its color

nasolacrimal duct

passageway for tears from the lacrimal sac into the nose

optic disk

exit site of retinal nerve fibers, as well as the entrance point for retinal arteries and the exit point for retinal veins

optic nerve

nerve responsible for carrying impulses for the sense of sight from the retina to the brain

posterior chamber

space btwn the back of the iris and the front of the vitreous filled with aq. fluid

pupil

black circular opening in the center of iris through which light passes as it enters the eye

retina

innermost layer that perceives and transmits light to the optic nerve

cones

cone-shaped cells within the retina that are color sensitive and respond to bright light

rods

rod-shaped cells within the retina that responds to dim light

scerla

tough, fibrous, white outer coat extending from the cornea to the optic nerve

trabecular meshwork

mesh-like structures in the ant. chamber that filters the aq. humor as it flows into the canal of Sclemm

vitreous

jelly-like mass filling the inner chamber btwn the lens and retina that gives bulk to the eye

asthenopia

eyestrain

blepharospasm

involun. contraction of the muscles surrounding the eye, causing uncontrolled blinking and lid squeezing

diplopia

double vision

exophthalmos

abnorm. protrusion of one or both eyeballs

exopthalmus

abnorm. protrusion of one or both eyeballs

lacrimation

secretion of tears

nystagmus

involunt., rapid oscillating movement of the eyeballs

photophobia

extreme sensitivity to, and discomfort from, light

scotoma

blind spot vision

refractive errors

defects in the bending of light as it enters the eye, causing an improper focus on the retina

astigmatism

distorted vision caused by an oblong or cylindrical curvature of the lens or cornea that prevents light rays from coming to a single focus on the retina

hyperopia

farsightedness; diff. seeing close objects when light rays extend beyond the proper focus on the retina

myopia

niearsightedness; diff. seeing distant obj. when light rays falls short of the proper focus on the retina

presbyopia

impaired vision owing to old-age loss of accommodation

accommodation

ability of the eye to adjust focus on near objects

ambylopia

decreased vision in early life due to a functional defect that an occur as a result of strabismus, refractive errors (one is more nearsighted, farsighted, or astigmatic that the other) or trauma; usually occurs in one eye, also known as lazy eye

aphakia

absence of the lens, usually after cataract extraction

blepharitis

inflammation of the eyelid

blepharochalasis

baggy eyelid; overabundance and loss of elasticity of skin on the upper eyelid, causing a fold of skin to hang down over the edge of the eyelid when the eyes are open.

dermatochalasis

baggy eyelid; overabundance and loss of elasticity of skin on the upper eyelid, causing a fold of skin to hang down over the edge of the eyelid when the eyes are open.

blepharoptosis

drooping of the eyelid usually causing by paralysis

ptosis

drooping of the eyelid usually causing by paralysis

chalazion

chronic nodular inflamm. of the meibomian gland, usually the result of a blocked duct; commonly presents as a swelling on the upper or lower eyelid

cataract

opaque clouding of the lens causing decreased vision

conjunctivitis

pink eye; inflamm. of conjunctiva

dacryocystitis

inflamm. of the tear sac

diabetic retinopathy

disease of the retina in diabetics characterized by capillary leakage, bleeding, and new vessel formation, leading to scarring and loss vision

ectropion

outward turning of the rim of the eyelid

entropion

inward turning of the rim of the eyelid

epiphora

abnorm. overflow of tears caused by blockage of the lacrimal duct

glaucoma

group of diseases of the eye characterized by increased intraocular pressure that results in damage to the optic nerve, producing defects in vision

hordeolum

sty; an acute infection of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid

iritis

inflamm. of the iris

keratitis

inflamm. of the cornea

macular degneration

breakdown or thinning of the tissues in the macula, resulting in partial or complete loss of central vision

pseudophakia

eye in which the natural lens is replaced with an artificial lens implant

pterygium

fibrous growth of conjuctival tissue that extends onto the cornea

retinal detachment

seperation of the retina from the underlying epithelium, disrupting vision and resulting in blindness if not repaired surgically

retinitis

inflamm. of the retina

strabismus

crossed eyes; a condition of eye misalignment caused by intraocular muscle imbalance

esotropia

right or left eye deviates inward towards the nose

exotropia

right or left eye deviates outward away from the nose

scleritis

inflamm. of sclera

trichiasis

misdirected eyelashes that rub on the conjuctiva or cornea

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