how a person acquires the rules, standards, and values of his or her family, group, and culture
idea that people sometimes infer their attitudes from their overt behavior, rather than from their own internal state.
the act of comparing one's abilities, opinions, or emotions with those of another person or persons
the part of an individual's self-concept that derives from his or her membership in a social group.
discrepancies between how we perceive ourselves and how we would ideally like to be or believe others think we should be
cybernetic theory of self-regulation
people compare their behavior to a standard, decide that it matches the standard or does not, and continue to adjust their behavior until a match is made or they give up.
seeking out and interpreting situations that confirm one's self-concept. (this is who I am)
mild, falsely positive self-enhancing perceptions of one's personal qualities.
people cope with specific threats to their self-worth by reaffirming unrelated aspects of themselves. (Claude Steele)
Self-evaluation Maintenance theory
reacting to the success of others with pride (basking in reflective glory) or discontent (suffering by comparison) and consequent efforts to restore a sense of self
when another person outperforms us on a behavior that is relevant to our self definition, the greater the threat to our self evaluation
when another person outperforms us on a behavior that is not relevant to our self definition, we feel pride in their success.
social comparison theory
idea that people are driven to evaluate themselves through comparisons with other people.
downward social comparisons
comparing one's traits or abilities with someone who is worse off than oneself
upward social comparisons
comparing one's traits or abilities with someone who is better off than oneself.
similarity to another person on attributes related to a target attribute, such as background or preparation.
deliberate efforts to act in ways that create a particular impression of the self.
flattering or doing favors for a person to get that person to like you or to do things for you